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— StA^ ^tfc 



® 

"THE APOSTLES' DOCTRINE AND FELLOWSHIP." 



FIVE SERMONS 



PREACHED IN THE PRINCIPAL CHURCHES OF HIS DIOCESE, I 



DVBITVO 



fflS SPRING VISITATION, 1844. 



BT TRX 

RT. REV. L. SILTJMAN IVES, D. D., LL. D., 

BISHOP 09 NORTH CABOZJNA. 



PutHshed "by the unanimous request of his Convention. 




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NEW-YORK : 
D APPLETON & CO., 200 BROADWAY. 

PHILADELPHIA: 
GEO. S. APPLETON, 148 CHESNUT-ST. 

MDCOCXLIY. 

/ 8r A. .> 



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TH*^ NEW TORK j 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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/s-^r**, I t^JOX AND 

TILLCN FC-»- OPTIONS. 



Ertcrso, according to Act of Gongress, in tho year 1844, 
By D. Applstok aitd CoHPAnr, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the 

Soutliern District of New- York. 



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TO THE RT. REV. L. SILLIMAN IVES, D. D., BISHOP OF 

NORTH CAROUNA. 

WaakiMgUH, JV. a, JIfay 97Cft, 1844. 
Rt. Rxt and Dxak Sir : 

We hare been appointed by the Convention of this Dioceeei whose 
■ion has jnst cloeed, to commnnicate to yon the nnaninunu request of the 
Convention, that yon will consent to the pablicatioo of the fire SersMNU 
which yon have recently preached in the principal Clrarches of this Diocese. 
We cannot forbeur to add the expression of the hjfh satisfaction with 
which we listened to these disceorses, and ^oor convietion that the publi- 
cation of them will be of eminent senriee to the cause of Christ and His 
Church. 

We are, Rt. Rev, and dear Sir, 

Host respectiully and affectionately, 
Your Brethren in Christ. 

F. M. HUBBARD, 
R. S. MASON, 
J. SINGLETARY, 
S. J. JOHNSTON, 
JONA. H. JACOCKS, 
JOSIAH COLLINS, 
JOHN 8. EATON. 



TO THE REV. MESSRS. HUBBARD, MASON, &c, &e. 

Raleigh, Jtou Sd, 1844. 
DxAR BaxTHBBir : 

In communicating to you, under shelter of your too favorable judgment, 
my consent to the publication of my jfoe diseourseSf I feel it my duty to 
remind you of a wish expressed by me to the Convention, that no pecuniary 
responsibility, on this account, should be incurred by the Diocese; but 
that all risk of the publication should devolve upon the Author. 

My object in preparing these discourses, was to do what I might, by the 
help of God, to protect His truth from harm at this time of extraordinaty 
confbsion on matters of Faith ; a confusion growing out of unfounded and 
iadiscriminaite charges against Church-Catholic doctrine, as RomuJk heretyi 

m — -7-^ 



® (J 

t 

thus onsettling the blinds of some, and threatening' loss to the Church of I 
Jesus, and to the souls for which He died* Hence I felt called upon, as a ! 
Christian Bishop, to attempt something within my proper sphere, to avert 
the growing evil, by placing before yon in a scriptural light some of those 
fundamental verities upon which, as Churchmen, we rest our hopes of hea- 
ven. That I have so far succeeded as to secure your united approbation, 
is matter to me of heart-cheering encouragement amid the arduous and 
trying hibors of my Episcopal office. In addition, I ask only the blessing of 
God upon these labors, that they may redound to His glory, and the ad- 
vancement of His Holy Church. 

With daily prayers for your welfare, and affectionate regard for you as 
my feUow-faiborers, I remain, dear brethren, 

Your faithfn> friend and servant in Christ, 

L. SILLtMAX IVES. 



® Q 



9 




LA.nS DSO. 




CONTENTS, 



SERMON I. 

The Cage of the Fi rat Converts 9 

SERMON II. 
The Conditions and Means of Justification to Adult Converts 33 

SERMON III. 

Objections to Baptism, as a Condition and Means of Justification an- 
swered 63 

I. As regards the Sacrament generally 65 

n. As rngards its Application to Infants 79 

SERMON IV. 
Confirmation, a Means of Grace instituted by Almighty Grod 99 

SERMON V. 
I'he Apostles' Fellowship 131 



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9 



SERMON I. 

THE CASE OP THE FIRST CONVERTS. 



•^ 



® 



O ALMIGHTY GOD, WHO, BY THY SON JESUS CHRIST, DIDST GIVE 
TO THY APOSTLE SAINT PETER MANY EXCELLENT GIFTS, AND COM- 
MANDED8T HIM EARNESTLY TO FEED THY FLOCK ; MAKE, WE BESEECH 
THEE, ALL BISHOPS AND PASTORS DILIGENTLY TO PREACH THY HOLY 
WORD, AND THE PEOPLE OBEDIENTLY TO FOLLOW THE SAME, THAT 
THEY MAY RECEIVE THE CROWN OF EVERLASTING GLORY, THROUGH 
JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD. AMEN. 




E CASE OP THE FIEBT CONTEXTS. 



The work of our Saviour's missioD had just been 
icomplished. The foundation of Hia scheme of 
ercy to guilty men had just been laid in Hia death, 
surrectioo, ascension, and the gifl of the Holf Ghost. 
be institution, of which He was the declared Head, 
hich was to embody, develope, and apply for man'i 
I?ation, the principles and benelits of His redemp- 
HI — glimpses of which only had here and there 
^ared in His public teaching — had just been com- 
itted, under His guidance, to the oversight of the 
'elve apostles and their successors " to the end of 
ne." In the text, brethren, we are presented with 



® - ■ ® 



O ALMIOHTT GOD, WHO, BY THY SON JESUS CHRIST, DTOST GIVE 
TO THY APOSTLE SAINT PETER MANY EXCELLENT GIFTS, AND COM- 
HAN0ED8T HIM EARNESTLY TO FEED THY FLOCK ; BL/UnE, WE BESEECH 
THEE, ALL BISHOPS AND PASTORS DILIGENTLY TO PREACH THY HOLY 
WORD, AND THE PEOPLE OBEDIENTLY TO FOLLOW THE SAME, THAT 
THEY MAY RECEIVE THE CROWN OF EVERTJISTING GLORY, THROUGH 
JESUS CHRIST OUR IX>RD. AMEN. 



9 (9 




THE CASE OP THE FIBBT CONVBRTK 



in, ud laid anio Felei ud hi 

uduUwadaf 



Tbe work of our Saviour's misBion had just been 
accomplished. The found&tion of His scheme of 
mercy to guilty men had just been laid in His death, 
resurrection, ascension, and the gifl of the Holy Ghost. 
The institution, of which He was the declared Head, 
which was to embody, develope, and apply for man's 
ulration, the principles and benefits of His redemp- 
tion — glimpses of which only had here and there 
ippeared in His public teaching — had just been com- 
mitted, under His guidance, to the oversight of the 
twelve apostles and their successors " to the end of 
time." In the text, brethren, we are presented with 



f 

10 THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONTERTS. 

the first inspired notice of the effect of this institu- 
tion, in its application to the wants of those for whom 
it was established. The divine Redeemer ** has 
ascended up on high and received gifts for men." 
The Holy Ghost, in His fullest measure, has been 
shed upon the Church. The first assembly has met 
to listen to her message from heaven. Her teachers 
arise by command and in the strength of their Lord, 
to proclaim His truth. Their words are suited to 
the moral state of their hearers. They unfold the 
startling fact, that He whom they had crucified is 
''both Lord and Christ;" that the blood which in 
awful temerity they had imprecated upon themselves 
and their children, is the blood of the Son of the 
most High God. The word found its way to their 
conscience. The sword of the Spirit pierqed to 
their inmost souls. " They were pricked in their 
hearts, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the 
Apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do?" 

This record, I say, calls our attention to the 
earliest effects of the Gospel upon the hearts of 
men, and to the earliest development of the Gospel 
itself as a system of " grace and truth by Jesus 
Christ."' Some of its leading principles, it is true, 
had already been promulgated by Him; but in a 



1) John i. 17. 
^ — _• 



THE CASE OP THE PIR8T CONTBRT8. 11 

manner so diffuse and abstract as to render their 
meaning and force doubtful. These principles, how- 
ever, are now, through the instrumentality of the 
Church, in the progress of being collected together, 
and defined, and illustrated in their application. 
And this is done under the infallible direction of His 
Spirit who is " the Author and Finisher of the Faith."* 
No one at all conversant with the most effectual 
modes of communicating truth, can fail to perceive 
the immense value, to the clear understanding of 
God's will, of this first, this practical exposition of 
the Gospel. It would seem, indeed, to be an infalli- 
ble interpreter to Christ's followers. Other men 
may speculate, and theorize, and run into wild ex- 
tremes, or ** be driven about by every wind of doc- 
trine ;"' but so long as this book of the Acts of the 
Apostles is preserved to us — this record of the ex- 
emplification of gospel priniciples, in theprtutice of 
inspired men — remains in our hands, we can be at no 
loss for means, either to detect error, or keep to the 
simplicity of truth ; and hence can have no excuse 
for distrust or doubtfulness in regard to the funda- 
mental Faith. If, with this record in our hands, we 
err, the fault must be our own — ^must be traced to 
the temper of our minds. 

1) Heb. ZU.9. 2) Epb. ir. 14. 

%. % 



c^ 

12 THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONVERTS. 

We live in a singular day : — a day of un( 
pled strife, and uncertainty, and wandering t( 
fro for the truth; — a day in which the rapid wa 
and shillings of professed belief tell too plain 
utter want in religion of fixed principles ; an 
great danger to us all of being entangled i: 
growing skepticism ; drawn into the swelling 
tumultuous current of spiritual licentiousness 
drifting' away, in our self-sufficiency, from the 
sure anchorage, ''the rock Christ Jesus." 
dut}^ then, can be more urgent than our retu 
" the first principles of the doctrine of Chris 
our careful review of the fundamental verities, 
which, as Churchmen, we profess to build our 
of heaven. Every priest at our altar has vowe 
fore God, ** so to minister the doctrine and sacrai 
and the discipline of Christ, as the Lord hath 
manded, and as this church hath received the s 
so that he may teach the people with all diliger 
keep and observe the same."* What, ther< 
** the ambassador for Chrbt "^ is under such sc 
obligations to teach, you, good people, must be \ 
equal obligations to observe. I shall make no 
ogy, then, for recalling to your mind, some c 

1) Heb. r. 12, xl 1. 

2} The Fork akd Manrer or Orderhtq Priests. 

3) 9 Cor. y. 20. 



THE CASE OP THE FIRST COMTERTS. 13 

great practical truths, which enter into the authorized 
teachings of the church, as " the .witness and keeper 
of Holy Writ.*'^ In doing so, I propose to confine 
myself to the discussion of those truths mrde plain 
in the passing of the first converts to Christianity, un- 
der the Apostles, from a state of condemnaticn, to 
one of salyation— one of fellowship with Jesus Christ. 
1. The first sermon afler the descent of the 
Holy Ghost produced the effects recorded in the text. 
The multitude, to the number of three thousand or 
more, ** are pricked in their heart," — that is, deeply 
convicted of sin — made conscious of personal guilt 
and danger. This result, however, came not from 
the simple force of truth. Such truth, in substance, 
had already been uttered by the Son of God, and 
enforced by miracles ; but with little perceptible ef- 
fect. Now, however, a pervading energy seems to 
give point to every word, and make it efficacious 
with almost every heart. We feel that a new influ- 
ence is at work — a new hand extended for our help. 
We begin to realize, in the deep thoughts, the earn- 
est convictions of the multitude, something of that 
promise of Jesus — ** When the Comforter is come, 
He will convince the world of sin and of righteous- 
ness and of judgment."^ It is manifest to us, that 

1) Art. XX. 2) John xvi. 8. 
Q) ■ ® 



14 TUB CASE OF THE FIRST CONVERTS. 

the blessed Comforter has come ; that the mighty 
Spirit who had filled the hearts of the Apostles and 
given them " cloven tongues like as of fire,"^ now 
infuses His holy energy into their words, and makes 
them " sharper than any two edged sword."* 

And here we see the character of the Gospel as a 
spiritual dispensation; a dispensation of life and 
grace, addressing itself, through outward, instituted 
channels, to the dead and alienated hearts of fallen 
men; — bringing to them from Christ, the Head of 
the church, the offer of His favor, and the power to 
return to an offended God, through fellowship with 
Him ; — thus arousing anew their sensibilities, subdu- 
ing their pride, cleansing away their impurity, restor- 
ing their confidence, enkindling their love, and ming- 
ling their affections in the holy and eternal commun- 
ion of saints. Here, then, we have the solemn lesson 
— a lesson so humbling to our pride — of our great 
moral needs, and of the only, but all-sufficient source 
of our help ; that '' we are not sufficient of ourselves 
to think anything, as of ourselves ; but that our suf- 
ficiency is of God." 8 We have an insight, too, into 
the meaning of many of our LordV sayings — espe- 
cially that, to the Jews, hard saying — " No man can 
come to me, except the Father which hath sent me 



1) AcU ii. 3. 2) Heb. ir. 12. 3) 2 Cor. iii. 5. 

. ^ 



THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONYERTS. 15 

draw him ;"* and of that other saying — " without 
me ye can do nothing ;"^ and of what the holy church 
confesseth on her knees before God, — '' All holy de- 
sires, all good counsels, all just works proceed from 
Him,"' and '' without Him, nothing is strong, nothing 
is holy."* 

The case of the first converts, however, shows, 
(1) that the operation of the Holy Ghost upon our 
hearts is limited by our freedom of will ; (2) that 
His gifts are dispensed to us not at once in their full 
measure, but in different and increasing degrees, ac- 
cording to our faithful diligence in the use of certain 
prescribed means ; and (3) that His work within us 
consists in impressing and invigorating our moral na- 
ture, and not in communicating knowledge to our 
minds ; — this being the office of the external revela- 
tion of God's will. 

(1.) That the operation of the Holy Ghost upon 
the hearts of the first converts did not infringe their 
freedcMn of will, is clear from the manner in which 
they were approached and treated by the Gospel. It 
appealed to them as reasonable, accountable moral 
agents ; set before them life and death, and left the 

]) John Ti. 94. S) lb. zr. 5. 3) Collect Evening Prayer, 

4} Collect for Fnirtk Sunday after TVmify. See alio ColIecU for FlrH, 

JTtnthf Eleventky Thirteenth^ F^fieentky Sixteenth, Seoenteenth, Eighteenth, and 

Ji/lneieentk Sundaye t^ler TVtmly 

9 9 



-•r^. 



16 THE CA8B OF THE FIRST CONTERTS. 

• 

responsibility of choice with themselves. It bestowec 
its blessings, too, according to their readiness to re 
ceive them. ** When they heard this" — willingly 
opened their ears to the word — a holy compunctici] 
sprang up in their hearts. " They that gladly re- 
ceived the word, were baptized"* — agreeably to the 
words of the holy John, *' as many as received Him, 
to them gave he power to become the sons of God."^ 
— agreeably, too, to the words of Jesus Himself, wher 
displaying the Qospel in its overflowing fulness, and 
offering its rich benefits to the needy ; — ** If any man 
thirst, let him come unto me and drink ;'*^ and '* Hino 
that Cometh to me I will in no wise cast out."^ 

(2.) It is manifest also, in the case of the first 
converts, as I remarked, that the gifts of the Hoi} 
Ghost were dispensed, not at once in their full meas- 
ure, but in different and increasing degrees, acccrd 
ing to the faithful use of certain prescribed means. 
The principle here involved, is exhibited in the text : 
while the facts, showing that this principle is carriec 
out to the full extent of the proposition, are connected 
with it, and will be adduced in their proper place. 
For the present we will confine our attention in regard 
to this point, to the instruction of the text. The firsi 
influence of the divine Spirit, as here made known 

]) AeU ii. 41. S) John i. 13. 3} lb. vii. 37. 4) lb. vi. 37. 



®- 



t* —^ — _ 

THE CASE OF TDE FIRST CONTERTf. 17 

accompanied the simple preaching of the Gospel ; and 
consisted in convincing of sin, and producing a desire 
to escape it, and to return in righteousness unto God. 
The assembly " were pricked in their heart ;" and 
made to inquire, in a spirit of humble submission, 
" what they should do to be saved ?" This was the 
first mark of their conversion, and the first step (and 
an important step it was) towards their regeneration. 
They had much ref son to be thankful for it, and to 
make devout acknowledgment of it to God. But the 
relation of no personal experience is heard — no boast- 
ing of great attainments — no declaration of the for- 
giveness of sins— of an inward illumination^-of a 
sensible enjoyment of the divine presence. No : these 
converts had words to express only their un worthiness 
— ^their guilt — their deep spiritual necessity. All 
that they pleaded, before their baptism, shows only a 
sense of want, and a desire to be filled. And this, 
too, notwithstanding the day on which they were con- 
verted, was one of special and miraculous effusion of 
the Holy Ghost, when, if on any occasion, they 
might have looked for His sensible and plenary com- 
munications. But no : they feel nothing, at this, the 
earliest stage of their spiritual course, but a painful 
sense of deficiency, and a longing for the supplies of 
knowledge and grace. " We are in want, in danger, 

in a state of ungrateful disobedience ; Sirs, Sirs, what 

2* 

® ® 



(S)' 



18 THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONVERTS. 



shall we do?" And this feeling characterizes, so far 
as we have any account, every case of conversion in 
the New Testament. All are bowed before the Holy 
One in deep humility ; under a sense of guilt and 
insufficiency. Not a single instance can be adduced 
where the convert declared any experience of change 
from darkness to light, or laid claim to any spiritual 
possession whatever. A conviction of personal un- 
worthiness, and a desire to attain a better state, is all 
that appears. The only change manifest in their 
case, is from indifference to earnestness — from pride 
to humility — from self-confidence to absolute reliance 
upon God. 

Take the case of the persecuting Saul. His con- 
version is extraordinary. He is convinced of his 
error by a miracle. And yet, when truth has had its 
effect, and he lies in the dust of self-abasement before 
his injured Saviour, what is his experience ? All is 
told in one short sentence — ** Lord, what wilt thou 
have me to do ?" ' So with the eunuch, and the jailor, 
and the rest. All are distinguished only for their 
humility, and modesty, and freedom from every pre- 
tence. The case of the father, who, before the estab- 
lishment of the Gospel, came to Jesus in behalf of 
his possessed child, will hardly be pleaded as an ex- 

1) Acts ix. 6. 






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r 



THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONYERTS. 19 



eeption, although he affirmed — "Lord, I believe." 
For, as if feeling that the words savored somewhat 
of presumption, he immediately added — ** Help thou 
mine unbelief."^ Neither the case of the eunuch, 
after its establishment, when he declared his belief in 
the simple fact, that ''Jesus Christ is the Son of 
God;"^ which was the profession of Christ before 
men, alws^s required at holy baptism. The cases of 
conversion recorded in the New Testament seem 
really so many apt illustrations of the view which our 
Lord Himself gave of this grace, when '' He took a 
little child and set him in the midst of the disciples and 
said, except ye be converted and become as Utile chil" 
dren, ye cannot enter into the Kingdom of Heaven ;" 
and also of the principle set forth in those other de- 
clarations — '' Blessed are they that hunger and thirst 
after righteousness, for they shall be filled ;"* " He 
filleth the hungry with good things, and the rich He 
sendeth empty away."* We see, then, that the ope- 
ration of God on the heart of man, in conversion, or 
the first stage of his spiritual progress, produces only 
a sense of deep spiritual want — a renunciation of self, 
and a turning to Christ as '' Head over all things unto 
his church,"* for pardon and the higher gifts of grace ; 



1) Mark iz. 34. 2) AcU viii. 37. 3) Matt. v. 6. 

4) Luke i. 53. 5) Eph. i. 22. 



® 



20 THE CASE OF THE FIRST COMYERTS. 

thus ensuring to the convert the fulfillment of Christ's 
promise — " To them that hear shall more be given."^ 
(3.) Besides, this effect of the Holy Ghost on the 
first converts, was confined to their moral nature; 
was realized in the revival of good dispositions in 
their hearts ; and not in the communication of knowl- 
edge to their minds. We hear from them no positive 
assurance that they are right — that they have passed 
from death unto life, and are certain of salvation, be- 
cause they feel it to be so with theip. No word of 
this kind betrays a blinding self-conceit — a presump- 
tuous reliance upon what they suppose to be light 
within.' On the contrary, they plead, notwithstand- 
ing their conversion, only their ignorance ; evince 



1) Mark iv. 24. 

2) I have been struck with the change, on this subject, which took place, 
as related by Mr. 8outhey, in the mind of Mr. Wesley befora his death. ** In 
his old age, he said to Mr. Melville Hurne these memorable words : — ' When 
fifty years ago my brother Charles and I, in nimpUcity of our hearts, told the 
good pec^Ie 6f England that unless they knew their sins were forgiven, they 
were under the wrath and curse of God, I marvel, Melville, they did not 
■tone ns ! The Methodists, I hope, know better now ; wo preach assur- 
ance, as we always did, as a common privilege of the children ef God ; but 
we do not enforce it, under pain of damnation, denounced on all who enjoy 
it not.' "--Sottthkt's Huitory of Methodism^ p. 145 

The doctrine of Holy Scripture, in the Church, on this point, is, that 
having received, in holy baptism, the assurance of the forgiveness of his sins , 
the Christian has *' the witness in himself" j»st in the degree that he sub> 
mits, in heart and life, to the commands and institutions of God made known 
in his word. 



1 



9 



TBK CASE OF THE FIRST CONVERTS. 21 

only a fear of self<ielusion and an anxious desire to 
be instructed in the right way by the Apostles ; — 
"Men and brethren, what shall we do?" Their 
pride had been subdued by a divine influence — the 
carnal bias had been removed from their minds to en- 
able them to " discern the things of the Spirit." * But 
these things had not yet been fully unfolded to them ; 
and they humbly seek instruction from the inspired 
teachers of God. While they are dependent upon 
His grace for " the hearing ear and the understanding 
heart," they are made to rely upon his outward reve- 
lation for "the words of eternal life" — a knowledge 
of their duty as Christians. 

2. The great principle here wrought out and 
made plain in the practice of believers under the 
Gospel — the principle of unquestioning submission to 
what God has revealed to his churchy in opposition to 
the claims to divine illumination set up by individuals 
— calls for a more special notice. 

The very attitude in which we stand to God as 
condemned sinners, is enough to show our utter de- 
pendence upon His will for mercy and help ; while 
our state of absolute ignorance, in regard to spiritual 
things, tells with equal clearness, that all our knowledge 
of this will must come from His own revelation of it. 

1) 1 Cor. iL 11, 19, 13, 14. 



^ 



® 41^ & 

22 THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONYERtS. 

The simple question is, has He condescended to make 
a revelation, and how? What we hear on every 
hand — and what we are rejoiced to hear— of the in- 
estimable value of the Bible as the word of God, is a 
sufficient answer ; shows clearly enough, that men be* 
lieve, or profess to believe, that God has revealed in 
the written Gospel the only plan whereby toe can be 
saved. We see, then, at a glance, our relation to 
this written Gospel. It is to us as the instrument 
which conveys from the sovereign the terms of par- 
don to the culprit under sentence of death. The 
condemned can add nothing — can alter nothing. He 
is emphatically helpless — bound by the sternest ne- 
cessity to the conditions of pardon and restoration, 
which, in the condescension of sovereign mercy, are 
proposed to him. He has only to comply with the 
conditions and live, or reject them and suffer death. 
The very title of the Gospel itself^ as "glad tidings" 
to us, shows this to be our relation to it — that it is the 
message of God, against whom we have rebelled, 
setting before us the only means of pardon and 
grace and eternal life. 

Take another view of it. It is the remedy provid- 
ed by divine wisdom for the maladies of our corrupt 
nature ; — maladies, not only above the reach of hu- 
man skill, but creating within us an aversion to what 
is thus prescribed for their cure by the divine Physi- 



Ttffe CASE OF THE FIRST CONYERTS. 23 

cian. Hence our moral state, disposing us as it does 
to take liberties with the Gospel — to modify, or in 
some way render it palatable by a mixture of our own 
conceit, proclaims what terrible consequences would 
inevitably follow from the exercise by us of a suppos- 
ed right to diminish, or add aught to the word of 
God — ^that awful word, " one jot or tittle of which 
can in no wise fail."^ 

Besides, the gospel is a deep mystery. Every 
truth of it is infinitely above our comprehension. 
All its doctrines and events and institutions, in re- 
gard to their suitableness and modes of influence, 
are equally hidden in the depths of divine wisdom. 
Nothing is known by us, nothing can be known, be- 
yond the mere fact that these things are appointed 
and brought about by God for our recovery from the 
fall ; and if humbly submitted to on our part, will not 
fail to accomplish their end. This is not only true ; 
but it is a truth for which God has condescended to 
give us the reason ; viz., that by it he might humble 
that pride in man which exalts itself against His 
counsels.'* 

Hence we see the wisdom of that child-like sub- 
mission to the inspired teaching of the Apostles, 
which marked the conduct of the first converts. 

1) llatt. ▼. 18. Lake xn, 17. SI) 1 Cor. i. 18, to end of chap. 

^ 



® ■ $ 

24 THE CASE OF THE PIRST CONTEflffS. 

And we see, too, in that submission the true spirit of 
obedience — the best, the only infallible proof of gen- 
uine conversion to God. 

(1.) In applying this truth, we must bear in mind, 
that not only all acts of outward obedience, but also 
the character of all inward affections and emotions 
must be determined by the oracles of God ; that, if 
a person be anxious to know whether he has under- 
gone that change of heart made necessary by the 
Gospel, he must inquire — not what impulses or im- 
pressions he has felt — but how far his spirit and tem- 
per and deportment are in conformity with the Gos- 
pel itself. And just in proportion as he finds himself 
disposed to learn and practice, in the fear of God, the 
duties of this Evangelical covenant — no matter what 
may have been his feelings at any particular time — 
is he justified in supposing himself a converted man. 
To the Churchman this test is furnished in the bap- 
tismal vows, as explained in the Catechism. The 
question for him is — " Have I, from my heart, re- 
nounced the world, the flesh and the devil, in the 
sense in which the Gospel requires me to renounce 
them, as exhibited in my Catechism ? Do I heartily 
believe all the articles of the Christian faith, as therein 
set forth ? Am I earnestly, and above all things, and 
in reliance upon God's grace, endeavoring to keep 
God's holy will and commandments, and walk in the 

® -^ 



THE CASE OP THE FIRST CONTERT8. 25 

same all the days of my life, according to my solemn 
row, promise, and profession at the baptismal font f " 
If he cannot, in some good degree, affirm this, let him 
rest assured that no fancied change within will e»- 
tablish his claim bef<M'e God to the character of a 
truly converted man. 

(2.) Finally, in urging the necessity of conscien- 
tious adherence to God's written Gospel in determin- 
ing our faith and practice ; permit me to remind you 
of the peculiar demands of the present time— demands 
upon us all to submit implicitly to the decisions of 
this Gospel; to submit, I do not mean, to what 
men, in their pride of opinion, please to call the deci- 
sions of the Gospel, but to that which God has real- 
ly decided in His Gospel ; to what He, as our offend- 
ed Sovereign requires of us, his rebellious, condemned, 
and dependent creatures, in order to our salvation ; 
and has handed down to us, from the Apostles through 
the instrumentality of His holy Church. Mere human 
opinion, however respectable the source, is worth lit- 
erally nothing on the subject of the sinner's return to 
God. It may be the opinion of an Augustine, or a 
Gregory, or an Innocent, or a Calvin, or a Wesley ; 
but it matters not, if Almighty God, through His own 
commissioned ^' witness and keeper of Holy Writ/' 
gives it not His sanction. We cannot be too deeply 
impressed with the importance of this truth. If we 

6 — ® 



26 THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONVERTS. 

are to give heed to man's opinion as such, — ^which is 
really, in a majority of cases, little else than an expres- 
sion of man's passion or conceit — we may as well 
have it professedly from the Koran or the Shaster, 
as from the Bible. Indeed, this individual opinion 
of man, as to what Almighty God ought to have 
revealed, or must have revealed, has taken the 
place of submission to what in truth God has re- 
vealed ; and thus made men arrogant, self-confident, 
and dictatorial ; rather than humble, reverent, inquir- 
ing, and fearful of mistaking or neglecting the least 
of God's requirements. 

Let us advert to a few examples. Take the man 
who makes the plain, catholic sense of Holy Writ 
yield to his own conception of the fitness of things. 
Who refuses, for example, to admit the manifest 
Scriptural doctrine of the Trinity, because he 
cannot comprehend, how it should be true ; or 
who withholds his assent from the Scripture teach- 
ing on the sacraments, because he is unable to 
perceive how such important effects should result 
from such insignificant and unpromising means; 
who affirms, '' the Gospel cannot mean exactly what 
it says on this subject, because its language is not in 
agreement with our rational conceptions^* Now, can 
it be doubted that such a person, instead of being 
governed by the simple principle — " Thus saith the 



<» 



r 



THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONYEBTS. 27 



Lord," is, in fact, following "the imaginaticm of his 
own heart ;" and, so far as humble belief in the Gos- 
pel is concerned, might as well be a disciple of Ma- 
homet, as a professed follower of Christ ? Take an- 
other instance. Take the man who determines the 
truth of particular doctrines or systems — not by the 
simple teaching of God's word, but by what he sees, 
or supposes he sees, of their effects upon men ; who 
denies, for example, the doctrine of bo^tismal regene-" 
ration, not because it is not taught in the New Tes- 
tament, but because many persons baptized, do not 
bring forth in their lives, ** the fruits of the Spirit ;" 
or who maintains the propriety of the revival system, 
as it is called, not because *any thing of the kind is 
found in the Gospel, but because, in his view, it has 
been instrumental to the conversion of sinners. Now, 
is not this- sort of reasoning a virtual appeal from 
God to man ; from what God has really instituted as 
the means of our return to him, to what man, after 
trial, thinks Gon aught to have instituted ? Is not 
this habit of making our submission to revealed truth 
depend upon visible effects, virtually saying — " True, 
God has appointed in His word certain means for 
the attainment of His favour; but surely we have 
the liberty, if, after fair trial, we shall judge God's 
means ineffectual, to abandon them, and institute 
others in their place V* And this too, beloved, not- 

^ , — ® 



9 

28 THE CASB OP THE FIRST COKVERTS. 

withstanding, God has said — ** Many are the devices 
of a man's heart, hut the counsel of the Lord, that shall 
stand ;*'^ and again, still more awfully, as the seal- 
ing sentence of His word — " I testify unto every man 
that heareth the words of the prophecy of this Bookj 
if any man shall add unto these things, God shall add 
unto him, the plagues that are written in this Book. 
And if any man shall take from the words of the Book 
of this prophecy, God shall take his part out of the 
Book of life."' Dear brethren, these are terrible 
words. They should make us bow very low, very 
reverently, before the Revelation of God ; make us 
watch narrowly over a proud mind, and a prying cu- 
riosity ; and anxious only to discover and follow the 
requirements and intimations of the divine will ; make 
us humbly bless God for the means, which, through 
the instrumentality of His holy Church, He has 
granted us in our Liturgy for understanding and fol- 
lowing His written word. With this Liturgy in our 
hands, and humility in our hearts, we may surely 
learn and practice the will of the Holy One ; — but not 
without humility. For, as St. Augustine saith, *' the 
knowledge of Holy Scripture is a great, a broad, and 
high palace ; but the door is very low, so that the high 
and arrogant man cannot get in. But he must stoop 

J) ProT. zix. SI. S) Sey. uH. 18, 19 



T 



TAB CASB OP THE FIRST CONVERTS. 29 

low, and humble himself that would find entrance." 
Or, as our Homily saith — ''Presumption and arro- 
gance is the mother of all error. While the humble 
man may search boldly for the truth of Scripture with- 
out fear of error." 

Beloved in Christ, an awful judgment is just be- 
fore us! A judgment, that shall try every man's 
work ! A judgment, the rule of which shall be the 
Gospel!^ Not what each one shall have called the 
Gospel, or supposed to be the Gospel ; but the Gospel 
as it really is. ** tie that rejecteth me, and receiveth 
not my words,"^ saith our Lord, '* the same shall 
judge him at the last day." O what will it avail us, 
that on this day we seem to gain our point— -convince 
ourselves of the truth of this or that system, and cry 
zealously, " Lord, Lord," if atthe last day — that " day 
of wrath, that awful day," it shall be found that we 
have not done the wiU of our Father which is in 
heaven !"' O, who can tell, who can conceive, the 
dreadful sorrows and disappointments of the hour, 
" when the master of the house has risen up and shut 
to the door, and ye begin to stand without and knock 
at the door, saying. Lord, Lord, open unto us — we 
have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast 
taught in our streets ; but He shall say, I tell you, I 

1) Rom. u. 16. S) John xii. 48. 3) Matt. vii. 91. 



30 



THE CASE OF THE FIRST CONVERTS. 



know you not whence ye are ; depart from me : 
workers of iniquity."* 

Brethren, brethren, let us while we have 1 
bow meekly to the Cross of Christ; and take 
yoke, and ham of Him, that at last, we may 
rest to our souls."* 



1) Lake xiu. 96. 



S) Matt. xi. 28,29, 30. 




r 



SERMON II. 



THE C0NDITI0N8 AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT 

CONVERTS. 



— , f 

34 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

in its plain, literal sense, is obvious for these reasons. 
It was addressed to a multitude — ^not trained, like 
ourselves, in the principles and phraseology of the 
Christian scheme, but totally destitute of such train- 
ing ; — a multitude, educated in different religious 
systems, and brought together, in the Providence of 
God, to hear for the first time the preaching of the 
Gospel — a circumstance, it must be admitted, show- 
ing the necessity of clearness and explicitness in the 
Apostle's answer. • Besides, their question was no 
common one ; in answering which, carelessness of 
expression would be attended with no serious conse- 
quences. But it was vital to their happiness — bore 
directly upon the pardon of their sins, and their 
eternal fellowship with Christ; hence involving in 
the character of the answer, St. Peter's fidelity in 
delivering his message. And when we turn to the 
answer itself, we find its language concise — its words 
few and emphatic — manifestly designed to express 
only that which was absolutely essential to the in- 
quirers ; designed not only to teach plainly, but also 
fundamentally — ^to teach indispensable truth. (2.) 
More than this, it was intended for the instruction of 
sinners in all ages of the Church. For the promise, 
based upon the conditions put forth in the text, was 
not only to the inquiring multitude, but "to their 
children, and to all that were afar off, even to as 



^ 



JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT CONVERTS. 35 

X 

maoj as the Lord our God should call."^ We, then, 
beloTed, are as deeply interested in rightly under- 
standing this answer of St. Peter, as were the assem- 
bly to whom it was addressed. Let us, then, casting 
off prejudice, yield our minds implicitly and prayer- 
fully to this teaching of inspiration, on a question so 
awful in itself, and so eternal in its effects upon our 
destiny. 

** Then Peter said unto them. Repent, and be bap- 
tized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, 
for the remission of sins." ' You perceive that I have 
brought under present consideration only that part of 
the Apostle's answer which relates to the conditions 
and means of our justification before God. I say, 
our justification ; by which I mean, our being in a 
" state of salvation,"' or such a state as insures sal- 
vation or the favor of God, " through Jesus Christ 
our Saviour."* The term justification may be ex- 
pressed, accurately enough for our purpose, by the 
terms, " remission of sins," and " regeneration, or 
being bom again." Hence all three of these terms 
will be used in the present discussion as implying the 
same thing. 

1. The first condition of justification, enjoined in 
the text, is Repentance, " Peter said unto them. Re- 



1) AeU ii. 38. 9) Church Catechinn. 

® 



36 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

pent" I shall not here detain you to argue the neceS' 
sity of this grace to our acceptance with God. That 
" except we repent we shall all perish,"' is certainly 
too plain and awful a truth, to be questioned by any 
believer in the Gospel ; while the fact of its universal 
admission renders argument needless, at least for my 
present purpose. I shall now ask your attention cmly 
to a few words on- the nature of the duty here vat' 
posed ; erroneous views of which more or less pre- 
vail ; and from a cause especially fruitful in religious 
error. And this is twofold : — (1.) Failing to regard 
Christian duty, as having two parts — an inward and 
an outward, a soul and a body. (2.) And also as 
being uniformly connected with some other duty — 
being only one of the constituents of an effective 
whole. Hence Gospel repentance, being made up of 
inward aversion to sin, and outward renunciation <^ 
it— of a change of mind, and thereby a change of life — 
has Seen liable to perversions, by being restricted, on 
the one hand to the internal effect, or on the other to 
the external development. As the result of this 
double error, we have, as a substitute for repentance 
in its evangelical completeness, a system of penmut 
in the one case, and of mere impulses^ in the other. 
Our branch of the Catholic Church, however, adher. 

1) Lake ziii. 3. 
% _| 



JUBTiriCATIOir TO ADULT CONTSBT8. 87 

in^ to holy Scripture, as understood by the early 
Fathers, embraces, in her view of repentance, both 
the inward and outward turning from sin ; descril^ 
ing it, in her Catechism, as that change of mind 
" whereby we forsake sin ;" fcarsake it in desire, ii^ 
tention, and act. Thus, as St. Augustine saith, 
*' Repentance is a medicinal grief." ^ When, ther^ 
foe, St Peter, in his answer, called upon the multi- 
tude to "repent," he called upon persons already 
filled with ''godly scHrrow," and hence required of 
them something entirely beyond this — required that 
their sorrow should work in them " repentance,"^—- 
move them to renounce, in thought, word, and deed, 
those sins of which they felt themselves guilty, and 
desired fcnrgiveness.' But this repentance, as Gospel 
repentance, embraced something more; connected 
itself with other pans of the scheme of salvation ; im- 
plied, in its inward working, an humility which shrinks 
from all self-dependence, and turns the heart, in a spirit 
of unconditional surrender to the mercies of God in 
Christ. And hence in our justification it is more or 
less identified with faith and baptism, as in the text. 
Therefore, from the very days of the Apostles, the 

1) Aug. in Pi. IviVu 9) 9 Cor. vii. 10. 

3} 8t. Aufmtiiie laith ftfain— PcBDlteDiia vera eit, pcBBiteii4a n^n ad- 
mittece, et admifta dsflere 7%«t npmteaM it tPM, which le»i»u»io Mmmit 
noitkmg mtrt to he rtpemted tfy and U hewaU mw aheadff emmittid.'-Avig. da 
Ecelei. dogmat. e. 54. 



38 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

Church has always required the candidate for holy 
baptism, to express his repentance by a public renun- 
ciation of " the world, the flesh, and the devil."* 

But repentance alone is not sufficient, according 
to the Gospel, for our justification. Baptism, in the 
name of Jesus Christ, must follow. Thus declares 
St. Peter : " Repent" — this is indispensable — "and be 
baptized," and " every one of you," and ** in the name 
of Jesus Christ." — This " for the remission of sins *' is 
equally indispensable. The words of the Apostle are 
explicit. The English translation of them is literal. 
And the whole scope of the New Testament, sus- 
tained by the voice of the universal Church for more 
than fifteen centuries after Christ, enforces their plain 
unsophisticated meaning. And it was not till the 
screws of human system were applied to them that 
they were forced to another sense. 

2. Baptism, " in the name of Jesus Christ,^* then, 
is the next condition, imposed by St. Peter, for our 
justification. 

The language, however, implies, as the essential 
element of the duty enjoined by it. Faith. For, 
surely, the converts would not have been called upon 

1) Hene«, in the Creed of Jerutalem, the exprettion it—" One baptism of 
fHtprateiwe for the remiuiou of tint." And Justin Martyr says—* One bap- 
tism of repentance and the knowledge of God, wbieh was made fur the sins 
of the people of God."— DuU. Ctm Triph, 



JirSTIFICATION TO ADULT COITTKBTS. 89 

to be baptized in the name of one in whom they did 
not believe ; the main object of baptism being to con- 
firm with such an one the most intimate relation. 
Besides, the name of Christ was doubtless put, by a 
common figure of speech, and to give it a peculiar 
signifi:^ance to the Jews who had rejected Him, for 
the name of the Holy Trinity — being baptized into 
which was regarded as the very highest expression of 
ons's faith in the scheme of redemption by Christ. 
Faith, then, is to be considered as the second thing 
enjoined by St. Peter upon the multitude. And in 
one sense, living faith ; but not so living, as we shall 
see, as to be relied upon ordinarily by the unbaptized 
for their justification.^ Still we cannot be justified 
without it, as it is needful in an adult to the enjoy- 
ment of the benefits of holy baptism. It is made so 
in the answer of Philip to the Eunuch ; — ** If thou 
believest with all thine heart, thou mayest."* And in 
the office for adult baptism, the Church calls upon the 
congregation, " not to doubt, but to earnestly believe 
that Christ will favorably receive the candidate, 
truly repenting, and coming unto him by faith; also, 
in her Catechism, the answer to the question — *' What 



1) In those oases where baptism camut he had, according to God's appoint- 
ment, the want of " the outward, visible si^pa," will not necessaifily deprive 
true faith of** the inward, spiiitualf race." 

2) ActoTiii.37.. 



4 



40 THS CONDITIONS AND MEANS QT 

is Tequired of persons to be baptized 1" is, '' Repent- 
ance, whereby thej forsake sin, and faith, wfaerebj 
they steadfastly believe the promises of God, made to 
them in that sacrament ;" — thus making the conditimis 
of a full and effectual adult b^tiam precisely the same 
with those set forth by St. Peter in the text. 

8. But with these, in order to the remissicm of 
sins, there is the third requirement. Baptism itself. 
A sacrament, the true bearing of which upon our soul's 
welfare, is so alarmingly kept out of view in our day, 
that one has need to tremble, lest he fall by the pre« 
vailing example of unbelief; kept out of view, not- 
withstanding its necessity to our justification, I do not 
hesitate to affirm, is rendered, by the ordinary law of 
the Gospel, as indispensable as that of faith or any 
other term of salvation ; it being not only a condition, 
but also an instituted vehicle of God's grace and fa^ 
vor to our souls ; ^' an outward visible sign, and an 
inward spiritual grace ;" ^ *' water, wherein the per- 
son is baptized, in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost," and '' a death unto sin, 

1) Church Catechism. ^* There are two parta in every Sacrament, as 
•neh } an oittwori, visible ngn, and an inioard, tfiritiul grau. Which being 
theHotegral or euential parts of a Sacrament, without either of which, it is 
no Sot/rmmni at aU, properly so called.** — Bi>. BsYBaiDOB on CaL A work 
that ahenld be in the hand of every parent 

*< Baptism,*^ says Bishop Hobart, ** eonfen ramimim of wauy and cites 
for proof; Jkta ii. 38, and zxii. 16. Poatk, fVMu, vol. ii. p. 460. 



1 



■m 



i 

I 



JUSTIFICATION TO APULT CONYERT% 43 

justified, a man mast both believe and be baptized. 
Now, I appeal to you, as sinners, dependent for your 
knowledge of the way of life upon the teaching of 
the Gospel, has any man among you a right — is he at 
all safe to suppose himself in a justified state, while 
destitute either of faith or baptism ? Did our Lord, 
at any time, retract or modify these conditions of sal- 
vation ? — conditions rendered more solenm and 
weighty by the fact of their having been made an 
important part of His final commission to the Twelve 
— a commission of few indispensable words,to be borne 
to all nations, and to the end of the world ?' 

Suppose these conditions should be annexed to the 
enjoyment of an earthly estate ; should be made con- 
ditions of a will conveying to you and your children 
an inheritance below. Suppose the will should run — 
*' He among you thatbelieveth and is baptized shall 
inherit this or that description of property ;" would 
vou for one moment imagine that a question could 
possibly be raised upon the meaning of an instrument 
so plainly worded ? that the inheritance could, by any 
semblance of title, be yours — whatever might be 



1) M»rk xvi. '5. 

** When Ee gara Tii diiciplei the.commiMipn otregenenOaig onto God, 
He said anto them — *• Go and diiciple all nationi, hapHiing them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, aud of the Holy Ghost.' "—las. Adn, 
Hot, 1. ii. c. 39. 



i 

44 .THB CONDITIONS AND MSAN0 OW 

your faith — ^without baptism? Aye, in that case, 
would you hesitate for an instant to make the most 
earnest and speedy preparation for receiving that holy 
sacrament 1 

Let us proceed in the argument. At the time 
when St. Paul exclaimed, ** Lord, what wilt thou have 
me to do V'^ he is admitted by all to have been a eon* 
verted man, and hence, in some degree, a believer. 
But was he justified? Were his sins forgiven, or 
washed away 1 Hear the language which, three days 
after, Ananias, who was sent by God to give him 
instruction, addressed to him — *' Arise, be baptized, 
amd wash away thy sins.'** What can be clearer 
than the fact, that the sins of St. Paul remained 
upon him, notwithstanding his wonderful conversion, 
till he was cleansed in holy baptism 1 Has another 
way been evened for the application of Christ's blood 
to the cleansing of our souls ? 

Now listen to the testimony of this same Apos- 
tle — ** Know ye not, that so many as were baptized 
into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death ?" 
that is, made partakers of the hene^ia^ustification 
being one^-of his sacrifice on the cross ? To the end, 
that being thus '* buried with him by baptism into 
death,"' it might be to us " a death unto sin," fol- 

1) A«U U. e. 9) lb. zziL 18. 3) Roio. vi. % 



wm 



JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT CONVEBT8. 46 



r 



lowed by " a new birth unto righteousness."' Again, 
'' Ye are all the children of God by faitk in Jesus 
Christ. For as many of you as have been baptized 
into Christ, have jpti/ am Christ"* Now being made 
" the children of God by faith in Jesus Christ/' cer- 
tainly implies being in '* a justified state ;" but thus 
being made " the children of God by faith," is the 
same, according to these words of St. Paul, as ** put- 
ting on Christ by baptism." Hence, is not the put^ 
ting on Christ by baptism, the being placed into ** a 
justified state?" Again, *' Christ loved the Church, 
and gave Himself for it ; that He might sanctify and 
cleanse it, toith the cashing of water by the teard;"* 
or as St. Chrysostom says, " by the words used in 
the form of baptism." Now what can this sanctify- 
ing and cleansing the members of Christ's body, the 
Church, with the washing of water by the word, mean, 
if not their purification, or forgiveness of sin, by bap- 
tism " in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost V** Again, the Apostle represents 
the believers at Colosse, as having ** put off the body 
of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ," 
OT by holy baptism ; as is clear from his very next 
words : " Buried with Him by baptism, wherein also 



1) Cboreh Catechisiii. &•• Bp. Bereridfe'i explanation of this answer. 
3) QaL Ul. 87. 3) JE^ph. t. 8S, 96. 4) Matt. zzTui. 19. 



48 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS OW 



put US into a state of salvation vhrough faith ia 
Christ. 

The Apostolic Fathers, with one voice, taught .tli# 
same doctrine. I have time to cite only a few passa^ 
ges.^ St. Barnahas, living in the days of the Apostles, 
aj£rms that " men go down into the water with sins 
and pollutions ;'* and that " baptism procures the re> 
mission of their sins."' St. Hermes, of the same 
period, declares, that " in water we receive remission 
of sins ;"^ and that this is according to *' the establish- 
ed word of the Omnipotent." Justin Martyr, of the 
next age, teaches, that '' provided men truly repent, 

1) The following, among many others too nnmeron* to cite, are worthy 
of the reader*! notice. ** While 1 lay in' darkneaa, Ignorant of tme life, I 
used to think the second birth, which divine mercy promised, for my salva- 
tion, a hard saying ; as if a man conid be quickened to a new life in the Uecer 
qfkeaUng voter, so as to put off his natural self— be changed in heart -and 
■ool ! But after that Hfe-giviog water succored me, washing away the 
stain of former years, and pouring into my cleansed and hallowed breaM 
the light which comes from heaven ; after I drank in the Heavenly Spirit, 
and was cieated into a new man by a second birth — then marvellously, what 
befiNV was doubtful, became plain to me." — St. Cvrmi ait ** On tk» Chruee tf 
Chd " in Baptism^ p. 3. — 145 years after the Apostles. 

** Great indeed is the baptism offered you — it is the ransom of captiTes, 
the rsmMSMM ^ tnu, the duUk «f tm, the regeneration of the soul,*' Ax^— 
St. Ctul, Prf, Cat, (8) 16. iii. 15.— 237 years after Apostles. 

** Whence are we Christians ? By /mtA, will every one say. But after 
what manner are we mved 1 By being regentraied tkrongh the grace givem 
in hoftiem. — St. Basil, de £fptr. SancL cz. 

** Behold, persons are baptized, then all their sins are forgiven, they are 
juetified from their sins.'*>-ST. Auoustink, Serm. clviii. Rom. viii. 30. 

8) Bam. Ep. o. xi p. 36, 38. 3) Herm. Mand. It. sec. 4. 



JUSTiriCATION TO ADULT CONVERTS. 47 

allusion to thi^lood of ancient sacrifices ; the in- 
strumental mean of conveyance, beptiem, expressed 
by the washing of our bodies ; and the instrumental 
mean of reception, expressed by the word faith." 
The merits of Christ, then, applied by the Holy 
Spirit in baptism, and received therein hjfaithy com- 
plete our state of justification. One more passage, 
although many similar ones remain behind, shall close 
our appeal to the writings of St. Paul. " Such," 
says he to the Corinthians, " were some of you, but 
ye have been washed,** (I translate according to the 
Greek and by the best authorities,) " but ye have 
been sanctified, but ye have been justified, in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our 
God."' By this he would teach, that at the baptism 
of the Corinthians, in the name of Christ, or the 
Holy Trinity, they were, through the Spirit of God, 
set apart and made clean for his service, and thus 
placed in a justified state before him. 

We find, therefore, in the writings of St. Paul, 
abundant confirmation of the doctrine of St. Peter in 
his instructions to the multitude— instructions enjoin- 
ing baptism as necessary to the *' remission of sins ;" 
•agreeable to what the same Apostle saith in another 
place — ** Even baptism doth also now save us ;"* or 

1) 1 Cor. Ti. 11. S) 1 Pet. iii. 91. 



•• 

^ TflC CaxniTIO.NS AND MEANS OP 

:.a: w .1:.-. s «ae of salvation through faith in 

T:if A>:i«:i..;c Fathers, with one voice, taught the 
sisH c- ctr.iit . I have time to cite only a few passa- 
r^> >: Btr:.a^£5. hi in^ in the davjs of the Apostles, 
Ls:.rr,:y ::.i: nif:. jo down into the water with sins 
LZ'L :•.'. ..•j.c* Lr.c that " baptism procures the re- 
L.^^iii. ..:* ;:it.; *::..*. - St. Hermes, of the same 
:ir-i.c. i>t': Lrc-*. :r.«t - jn water we receive remission 
.». ^.:;^ • Litz ::.i: l.1:^ i< according to *• the establish- 
i»L p.rc .■:" ::ir i>.T.ri:>.icnt.** Justin Martvr, of the 
21: v: i»r:. iTic>:-<. sr.*: -provided men truly repent, ' 

"".'•• «■ • . • .re i.n'.':.r Kir j .::«•# too rcr:€roiw to cite, are worthy 
n -h- -fcjii'-V ii;»:.- *• Wi »< I ;i¥ :r zkrizfff. irnoranf of trnelife, I 
a*-. *• ;i.iitft hf M>:-fi»»' w t..^i.:t ^\.m nierrr promised formrfalra- 
:..». I I .-•. ft. • !:tf L» J L n.t' .-.-•l*- .v .£::£*•:.«•«: to t new life io tAe later 
•*ifc. 1. •-..••- •«■ I.* . Pit .'f ::* :i:sr4," »*.f-i>e chan^d in heart and 
•ill, |iis- L-S-- :i:: :.i*-r 'iw wtur foworcd me. washing away the 
«:...r .1 I. -.■:"• 'iL^ til. p:*sr.:^ .:.:.> rj (:ean#ed and hallowed breast ■ 
;r»' ..-• * • • I M.Tf ■-.•••: ttftz. a^er I c.rsnk in the Hearenlr Spirit. 
..«. r — • ; :••. :: I. » tf » F^r .*,» a #*.*<»3£ hirh— ihen raaireDousJy. what 
•.. I.I-* ••: . .itMi*« •!... hrrt-ifi uiL.: rosje."— St. Crnuji *' On the Oraee of 
tVt, .1 A..^*** : .'.— •».■ «fi.> i.'tfr the .4pc»iJe». 

• '.• . ..•••*n f» :^♦ :-'.*• :*« o5fY'iy*3 — it is the ransom of raptires, 
.„. -^.^itt.it f' y.>K<«. :i'f a«:a 4*' .««. '.he rerroeration of ibe sodI," A.e.— 
y .'i. '- .*• ?■ N ... .'."k— i?^yfa."»a/ier.4postIe». 

' i\'tt:*"i^ •/ i" »-.•:.»:.« ■ JR* /i*:*. » i;l ererr one say. Bat after 
V M. nifc.-f - !.•» • # *-.-/x ' Pi .S. :.-.f tfmrated through Ike grmf gig 

• f."h.ii... •«} '^M» try -•UL.M.rw:- ties al.' xhtir sins are fo^' 

£ Bt-». En ."- *i A *^ *^ ^ Herm. tfaad if. 





L 



JUtTUriCATIOlf TO ADULT CONVBKTS. 49 

they are regenAted by the washing of water in the 
name of the three divine persons, and receive the re- 
missicHi ofsins."' Ireneus, speaking of this sacrament, 
calls it " the baptism of regeneration ;" and insists, 
that '* every son of Adam needs the laver of regene- 
raticHi to free him from the transgression in which he 
was bom."* St. Theophilus declares, that " the re- 
mission c^ sins is obtained by water in the laver of 
regeneratum."' Clement, of Alexandria, a little later, 
faking of baptism, says '' being baptized, we are 
illuminated and made sons — that is," says he, among 
other benefits — " receive grace by which the penal- 
ties due to sins are remitted."^ Tertullian styles bap- 
tism, '* the happy sacrament of water, whereby we 
are washed from the sins of our former blindness, and 
recovered to eternal life."* 

I might proceed through the whole noble armory 
of early martyrs and confessors, and find the same 
truth set forth thus distinctly, and without dissension. 
But I forbear, with the single remark, that these men, 
instriicted as many of them were by the Apostles, must 
have known and taught the Apostolic doctrine. 

I now turn to the formularies of our own Church ; 
frcHn which it will appear that our belief is, that re- 



1) Just. Mart. Apol i. S) Iren. lib. ii. e. S13. 3) Defen. Christ, 

aati AntoL 4) Clen. de Bapt. Ontt zL 5) Ter. de Bapt. e. L 



t 



50 THB CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

generation and the forgiveness of sifts, do not take 
place, even where repentance and faith exist, till the 
reception of baptism. That adult candidates for 
baptism are supposed by the Church to have repented 
and believed, is manifest from the language already 
cited, in which the congregation is exhorted " not to 
doubt that our Lord in baptism will favorably receive 
the candidates truly repenting and coming unto Him 
by faithJ' And that the candidates are not supposed 
by the Church to have yet received " remission of 
sins," notwithstanding their repentance and faith, is 
equally manifest from the very next words : *' That 
He will grant them (that is, in baptism) remission of 
their sins and bestow upon them the Holy Ghost;" 
as also, from the language of the preceding prayer : 
" We call upon Thee, for these persons, that they, 
coming to Thy holy baptism, (that is, with repentance 
and faith,) may receive remission of their sins by 
spiritual regeneration" This would be not only a use- 
less, but impious prayer, if, before baptism, the persons 
had been pardoned and regenerated. Again in the pray- 
er after the exhortation, we read ; "Give Thy Holy Spirit 
to these persons, that they may be born again, and be 
made heirs of everlasting salvation throuorh our Lord Je- 
sus Christ.'* And then, after their baptism, the Church 
thanks God that " they are now born again, and made 
heirs of everlasting salvation ;" and at their confirma- 

® 9 



JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT CONVERTS. 51 

tion declares, tinit God has "regenerated them by water 
and the Holy Ghost, and forgiven them all their sins." 
Hence we see why in the Nicenb Creed— which our 
YIHth Article of Religion requires to be " thor- 
oughly received" as *' proved by most certain warrants 
of holy Scripture," — the Church makes her members 
acknowledge " one baptism for the remission of sins ;" * 
and, in her Catechism, declares, its *' inward, q>iritual 
grace" to be '' a death unto sin, and a new birth unto 
righteousness." It is perfectly manifest, therefore, 
that while the Church insists upon the necessity of 
faith and repentance to our justification as adults, 
she at the same time maintains, that we are not jus- 
tified, or pardoned, or regenerated, as the term may 
be, till we are baptized. 

But you may ask how this view can be reconciled 
with our Xlth Article of Religion, which teaches that 
" all are accounted righteous before God, only for the 
merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by faith, 



1) The Coancil of Nice farther declares — ** He that is baptized descends 
indeed obnoxious to sins and held with the corruption of slavery, but he as- 
eendii free from that slavery and sins, the son of God, heir, yea, co-heir 
with Christ, having^ put on Christ, as it is written, * If ye be baptized into 
Christ, ye kaivepiaon Christ.*** — Couv. Nice, de S. BapL 

** In the articles of reli^on, baptism," says Bishop Hobart, " is evidently 
eonsidered as the metm tf our justjfieation, or being received into a state of 
favor with Crod, and also as a mean of receiving the Holy Ghost.*' See the 
proof of this assertion, in his Postkununu Works, vol. ii. p. 457. 



52 THS CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

and by faith only, and not for our own works and de* 
servings V* How, as the Jirst point, can we be said to 
be justified, or accounted righteous before God, cHiljT 
for Chrisfs merits, (which exclude our own works,) if 
baptism be necessary to this end 1 In answer, let me 
recall to your minds the already cited passage of St. 
Paul's Epistle to Titus : " Not by works of righteous- 
ness which we have done, but according to His mereif 
He saved us by the washing of regeneration," From 
this it is clear, that *' the washing of regeneration'' or 
baptism, is to be reckoned, not strictly among " our 
own works of righteousness," but among the provi- 
sions of '' Christ's mercy :" — not as a thing which we 
do to save ourselves, but a thing which God graciously 
appoints, as a mean through which He will, upcNi 
certain conditions, extend the benefits of salvation by 
Christ to our souls. Hence being a mere channel of 
grace, and receiving all its efficacy from Christ's 
merits and appointment, it can no more be considered 
as derogating from these merits as the sole ground of 
our justification, than the cup can be viewed as taking 
from the value of a potion through which it is instru-r 
mental in conveying life and health to the dying man.' 
Baptism, and the other divinely instituted means of 

1) " By baptum,*' lays Hooker, ** we ricatM CkriH Jtnu, and ftom Him 
that savinf grace whieh it prefer ontobaptinn — ^*The washing of refenera- 
tioD,*&c."— B. T. c. 57. 



f 



9 

JUBTIFIGATION TO ADULT CONYEBTB. 53 



/ 



grace, stand to Christ's blood as the only meritorioos 
caase of our justification, in the same relation, that 
the acts required of Israel to fix the blood of the 
lamb to their doors, stood to that blood as the ground 
of their deliverance. These acts, it will be admitted, 
were indi^>ensable, even to the bunch of hyssop for 
sprinkling, in order to their safety ; and yet it was to 
the blood on the lintel and the two side posts, and to 
the bhod ahne, that the angel of death looked, in with- 
holding firom them the instruments of destruction. 
So in regard to our salvation, whatever subordinate 
acts — whether of repentance, faith, or baptism — may 
l>e appointed for us in the scheme of redemption by 
Christ, they belong to that scheme,* acquire their 
value from His merits, and are accepted only as chan- 
nels opened by Himself to His grace and fellowship. 
And when, through them. His grace and fellowship 
come to us, <me, and mily one sentiment can lawfully 

1) It it tka want t^a clear pereeptkm of this troth which leads lo many 
to plaoB fiutk in an attitode of opposition to good worko — ^to separate the act 
bj which we are justified throofh the rigkioouauest of Christ, from the acts 
hj which we are endowed with the tfirU of Christ, ** without which we are 
■one f^His." A most remarkable instance of the error complained of, it 
seems to me, has been lately furnished by Ma. FASsa, in his FrimUive doc- 
frtee ^JtutifieatioH hwettigated. If this most elaborate writer had i^itained 
any thinf like a just conception of the doctrine of Justification tao^t by Bp. 
B«nx in his JOHrnumka JfyostoUeoj he certainly must have seen that not one. 
amoof his numerous quotations from the FATRias, is at variance with it. 
Siee ftuiher remarki apon this in a subsequent note. 



6 



54 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

arise in our hearts — ** Not unto us, not unto us, but 
unto Thy name, O Lord, be the praise." 

A second query, however, arises ; How can be^ 
tism be necessary to our justification, when by the 
ARTICLE we are said to be justified '' hy fcdth only ?" 
I answer, (1) that baptism is the mean whereby God 
extends to us pardon in Christ ; faith the means 
whereby we receive that pardon. On our part faith 
may be said to be the only mean. This,- however, 
does, by no means, exclude God's part, which ordi- 
narily is accomplished in the sacrament of our regen- 
eration. But (2) there is an additional, and even 
more weighty answer to this objection. That faith 
through which justification comes, is pot a simple be- 
lief in the existence of its object; neither a simple 
trust in the merits of its object ; but it is a trust en- 
livened and invigorated by the love of its object. In 
better language, it is a '' faith which works by love and 
purifies the heart." ^ For, " though I have all faith so 
that I could remove mountains, and have not charity 
or love, it profiteth me nothing."' Justifying fhith, 
then, embraces in its scope other Christian graces. 
It demands, as the first thing, repentance^ and this 
is founded in humility. And then, as you have just 
seen, it must be perfected in love : and love, in the 

]) Gal. T. 6. 3) 1 Cor. ziii. 8. See Homily iv. Of a fntemdIiMfy Ail&. 



JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT CONVERTS. 55 

Gospel sense, implies fellowship-^- adoption — incorpo- 
ration into Christ as '' Head over all things unto the 
Church " — ingrafting into Him, as " the branch is 
ingrafted into the vine."^ And here comes in &ap- 
tism, by which we *' put on Christ "* — " are made one 
body with him."' "For by one Spirit we are all 
baptized into one body."^ The faith, therefore, 
which according to the article is the only medium of 
oar justification, is the faith made lively and strong, 
(or " lively and perfect" as the Homily saith,) when 
we are regenerated, or bom anew in Christ Jesus 
** by water and the Holy Ghost."^ Hence in the 27th 

1) John XT. 5. 2)6aLiii.S7. 

3) Prayer in the Commanion Offiee. 4) I Cor. xii. 13. 

5) Mark hers the wordi of ** the jadicioof Hooker *'— ** BaptiMB U a 
sacrament which God hath iniititated in His Charch, to -the end that they 
which receive the same might thereby be ineorporated into Ckrist, and m 
throoi^h His most precious merit obtain as well that waving grace ef imputa- 
tion wkieh taketk awag aU/ormer guildnet»i as also that in/used inhu mrtM0 
of the Holfi Okost wUek giveth to the powers of the eoul tkeir firat dispoeition 
towartbfii/mreneameee i^ltfe.*'* — B. v. e. GO. This last expression, doubtless, 
roftn to the luw Uf^mlMe eovenant of Ood, or San c t if ic a tion ; and hence, the 
** first disposition " to this life, the life of God's ** peculiar people,*' must be 
generated, he means, under the grace eftke eovenant il»e/f. The expression 
is explained by another on the next page : ** As we are not naturally men 
without birth, so neither are we Christian men but by new birthy nor, accord- 
ing to the manifest ordinary eourae of divine dispensation, new-bom, but by 
that baptism which both declareth and maketh us Christians. In which 
respect we justly hold it to 1m the door of ew acfiuU entrance into God's 
house, the finA apparent beginning qf ttfoy a seal perhaps to the grace of 
election, but to oursanet^ieation hero, a step that hath not any beforo it." — 
B. ▼. e. 00, roh iL p. 341. 



i 

44 .THB CONDITIONS AND MSAN0 OV 

yoar faith— without baptism? Aye, in that case, 
would you hesitate for an instant to make the most 
earnest and speedy preparation for receiving that holy 
sacrament 1 

Let us proceed in the argument. At the time 
when St. Paul exclaimed, " Lord, what wilt thou have 
me to do ?"^ he is admitted by all to have been a eon* 
verted man, and hence, in some degree, a believer. 
But was h» justified? Were his sins forgiven, or 
washed away ? Hear the language which, three days 
after, Ananias, who was sent by God to give him 
instruction, addressed to him — " Arise, he baptized^ 
and wask away thy sins"* What can be clearer 
than the fact, that the sins of St. Paul remained 
upon him, notwithstanding his wonderful conversion, 
till he was cleansed in holy baptism 1 Has another 
way been opened for the application of Christ's blood 
to the cleansing of our souls ? 

Now listen to the testimony of this same Apos- 
tle — ^^ Know ye not, that so many as were baptized 
into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death?" 
that is, made partakers of the hene&is-^ustification 
being one^-of his sacrifice on the cross ? To the end, 
that being thus '' buried with him by baptism into 
death,"* it might be to us " a death unto sin," fol- 

1) A«ti ix. 6. 9) lb. zziL 16. 3) Roio. Ti. % 



<mrmm 




"T^^W^^BPW^F" 



JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT CONVEBTS. 46 

hwei by *' a new birth unto righteousness."^ Again, 
" Ye are all the children of God by faith in Jesus 
Christ. For as many of you as have been baptized 
into Christ, have jpti/ om Christ,**^ Now being made 
" the children of God by faith in Jesus Christ/' cer- 
tainly implies being in ** a justified state ;" but thus 
beiiig made ** the children of God by faith," is the 
same, according to these words of St. Paul, as '' put- 
ting on Christ by baptism." Hence, is not the put- 
ting on Christ by baptism, the being placed into *' a 
justified state?" Again, ** Christ loved the Church, 
and gave Himself for it ; that He might sanctify and 
cleanse it, mththeMoashing of water by the ward;'** 
or as St. Chrysostom says, '* by the words used in 
the form of baptism." Now what can this sanctify- 
ing and cleansing the members of Christ's body, the 
Church, with the washing of water by the word, mean, 
if not their purification, or forgiveness of sin, by bap- 
tisin *' in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost V** Again, the Apostle represents 
the believers at Colosse, as having *' put off the body 
of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ," 
or by holy baptism ; as is clear from his very next 
wi^ds : *^ Buried with Him by baptism, wherein also 



ly Cbnreh Catechinn. See Bp. Bereridge'f explanation of this answer. 
3) CKO. liL S7. 3) £pb. t. 8S, 96. 4) Matt zzTUi. 19. 



58 THB CONDinONB AMD MSAlfS OF 

entSy and it becomes an imperfect medium for the eye 
of the soul, ** in looking unto Jesus." 

Here, then, in this perfect, Gospel union, in or- 
der to our salvation, of spiritual graces— of outward 
means and inward influences — we have a suffi- 
cient guard, on the one hand, against formal self- 
righteousness, and on the other, against Antinomian 
fanaticism. Our part is clear : — '' What God hath 
joined together, we must not " attempt to '* put asun- 
der."^ And as He hath joined together '' the outward 
vbible sign and the inward spiritual grace "' — joined 
together, also, repentance, faith, and baptism, it be- 
hooves us to beware how we separate them. Neither 
repentance, faith, nor baptism avails aught in itself. 
Repentance must prostrate the soul in a spint of 
self-loathing before the Cross of Christ. Faith must 
lead it in holy love to repose for salvation upon the 
all-sufficient merits of the Cross; while Baptism must 
bind it to that Cross in the closest ties of fellowship 

1) Matt xix. 6. 

3) " That we may be bora of tho Spiiit," nj» Bishop BoTeridgv, « w 
most be boro alio of water. Not as if there was any siich Tirtoe ia wateri 
whereby it eooM regenerate as, hot beeanso this ia the rite or otdinaaoe ap- 
pointed by Christ, wherein to regenerate us by His Half ajfiriL And seeing 
this is instituted by Christ Himself, as we cannot be bora of water withoot 
the Spirit, neither can we, in any ordinary way, be bora of the Spirit with- 
ont water, used or applied in obediepce and conformity to His iostitatioa. 
OlrUtkatkjomtdtkeM together, mtdU 18 wt in ntr power to part tkam. He 
that would be bora of tho Spirit must be bora of the iMrter too."— Arm. zzzr. 



T 



€i 



JUSTSflGATlON TO ADULT CONTIBT8. 69 

with Him who shed apon it His precious blood. All 
these most anite, howeyer, in trolj bringing as to 
Christ ; while nothing is availing to our justification 
which results not in this — which " creates us " not 
** anew in Christ Jesus unto good works "' — " makes 
us" not "partakers of the divine nature."' The 
mark, beloved, is indeed high ; but we reach it, thanks 
to God, step bj step ; — ** first the blade, then the ear, 
then the full c<mi in the ear." We must, however, 
sow to the ^rit," and cultivate in the Spirit, or we 
shall nisver '' rei^ life everlasting."* 

But are there not some before me who as jet have 
''sown only to the flesh?" who have not taken the 
first step towards a provision fiu* an eternal, a spiritual, 

a holy existence t who are living firom day to day, 
as if days on earth would never end — squandering 

day after day, as if there were no day of judgment — 
no heaven, no hell ? What mean ye, creatures of an 
hour, by trifling thus with the solemn concerns of a 
soul that cannot die-— of an eternity that has no end? 
What mean ye, dependents upon God's forbearance, 
while basking in the sunshine of His present favor, 
and hewing for the light of His everlasting love, thus 
to walk abroad under the awful eye of His omnis- 
cience, trampling upon His commands, and covered 

l)Epli.iiia 9)9Pet.i4» 9)GaLW.8. 

% 



^ 

60 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS, EtC. 

with unrepented sins, as if sin was not '' the 
which His soul hateth?"^ What mean ye, worr 
the dust — whose lives are a vapor, whose days i 
dow that departeth— thus to exalt yourselves a^ 
the Judge of all the earth, as if ye " had made a 
nant with death, an agreement with hell 1"^ O, 
do the lessons of experience teach you ? Wh 
the occurrences of almost every day teach you ? ' 
does God's word teach you ? Aye, what does 
science teach you ? — That you are safe ? 'I'ha 
run no awful hazard ? That the way of transgrc 
is not hard ?^ That they do not stand on sli] 
places?^ O, remember, I tell you to-day, and '. 
you under authority of Almighty God, thcU repent 
according to the hope of the Gospel, comes too 
which shuts out baptism, and living faith on the 
of God! 



1) Ps. ii. 5. Is. i. 14. S) Is. xxviii. 15-18. 

3) Prov. ziii. 15. 4) Ps. Ixxiii. 18. 




® 



SERMON III. 

KmONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION AND MEANS OF 
JUSTIFICATION, ANSWERED. 




OBJEfnroNa to BArriBx, as a cx>NDmoK and mkamb o 

iOBTjnCATION, 1 



Agti U. 38, SD^-'nan PMar uld nUo Ihu^ Kapnt, ud b* baptlud 
BnrTMMOf TOD Id iIm hubs of J«ih Ohikt, ftir tb* naiiiioii df liju .... 
br Ik* ptfloia* l> iBto yoa, ukd lo joav oUUna. 

An ezammatifm of the false theories of astronom j, 
prior to the pieaent Copemican sjrstem, will show that 
their errore are to be ascribed mainl j to hasty uhicIu- 
sions from partial and discoooeeted obserTatione ; 
observations restricted to a portion of the heavenly bo- 
dies, instead of being extended to all with their mutual 
influences and dependences. Thus has it been in re- 
gard to the Christian religion. Men hare fixed their 
rievr so intently npon some particolir feature in this 
religioa,become so absorbed in their observations upcMi 
it, as to form in their minds an exaggerated estimate of 
ita value in relation to the other and equally important 



m 



i 



53 TH8 CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

and by faith only, and not for our own wcnrks and de- 
servings V How, as the Jirst point, can we be said to 
be justified, or accounted righteous before God, oply 
for Chrisfs merits, (which exclude our own works,) if 
baptism be necessary to this end ? In answer, let me 
recall to your minds the already cited passage of St. 
Paul's Epistle to Titus : " Not by works of righteous- 
ness which we have done, but according to His merejf 
He saved us by the washing of regeneration." From 
this it is clear, that ** the washinjg of regeneration" or 
baptism, is to be reckoned, not strictly among " our 
own works of righteousness," but among the provi- 
sions of ** Christ's mercy :" — ^not as a thing which we 
do to save ourselves, but a thing which God graciously 
appoints, as a mean through which He will, upon 
certain conditions, extend the benefits of salvation by 
Christ to our souls. Hence being a mere channel of 
grace, and receiving all its efficacy from Christ's 
merits and appointment, it can no more be considered 
as derogating from these merits as the sole ground of 
our justification, than the cup can be viewed as taking 
from the value of a potion through which it is instru- 
mental in conveying life and health to the dying man.^ 
Baptism, and the other divinely instituted means of 

1) <* By baptum,** layi Hooker, *< we rw«tM OkriH Jmu, and ftom Him 
that laving graee whieh is proper onto baptien— < The waahinf of regeoera- 
tion,*4kc**— B. ▼. c. 87. 



9 , 

JUSTIFICATION TO ADULT CONTERTS. 53 

gracey stand to Christ's blood as the only meritorious 
cause of our justificati<», in the same relation, that 
the acts required of Israel to fix the blood of the 
lamb to their doors, stood to that blood as the ground 
of their deliverance. These acts, it will be admitted, 
were indispensable, even to the bunch of hyssop for 
sprinkling, in order to their safety ; and yet it was to 
the blood on the lintel and the two side poets, and to 
the hUod aione, that the angel of death looked, in with- 
holding from them the instruments of destruction. 
So in regard to our salvation, whatever subordinate 
acts — whether of repentance, faith, or baptism — may 
be appmnted for us in the scheme of redemption by 
Christ, they belong to that scheme,* acquire their 
value from His merits, and are accepted only as chan- 
nels opened by Himself to His grace and fellowship. 
And when, through them, His grace and fellowship 
come to us, oae, and only one sentiment can lawfully 

1) It b the wmnt of a elear perception of tiiie trath which leads to many 
to pUoe fiutk in an attitode of opposition to good w erk » t o separate the act 
hf which we are justified throngh tlie fighUounuu of Christ, from tiie acts 
hj which we aie endowed with the ^nrtt of Christ, " witliont which we are 
a<Mra of His." A most remarkable instance of the error complained of, it 
seems to me, has been lately famished by Ma. FABcn, in his Primitive doc- 
trine ^fJtuHfUatiom hmtOigoUd. If this most elaborate writer had obtained 
any thinf like a just conception of the doctrine of Justification taught by Br. 
Buix in his Hmrmmuiea JSpootoHeOi he certainly must have seen that not one. 
among his numerous quotations from the Fatrbm, is at Tariance with it. 
Siee fturther mnartt upon this in a subsequent note. 



54 THE CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

arise in our hearts — *' Not unto us, not unto us, but 
unto Thy name, O Liord, be the praise.'' 

A second query, however, arises ; How can bap' 
tism be necessary to our justification, when by the 
ARTICLE we are said to be justified ** by faith only ?" 
I answer, (1) that baptism is the mean whereby God 
extends to us pardon in Christ ; faith the means 
whereby we receive that pardon. On our part faith 
may be said to be the only mean. This,- however, 
does, by no means, exclude God's part, which ordi- 
narily is accomplished in the sacrament of our regen- 
eration. But (2) there is an additional, and even 
more weighty answer to this objection. That faith 
through which justification comes, is not a simple be- 
lief in the existence of its object; neither a simple 
trust in the merits of its object ; but it is a trust en- 
livened and invigorated by the love of its object. In 
better language, it is a " faith which works by love and 
purifies the heart." ^ For, ^' though I have all faith so 
that I could remove mountains, and have not charity 
or love, it profiteth me nothing."'* Justifying faith, 
then, embraces in its scope other Christian graces. 
It demands, as the first thing, repentance y and this 
is founded in humility. And then, as you have just 
seen, it must be perfected in love : and love, in the 



]) Gal. ▼. 6. S) 1 Cor. ziii. S. See Homily iv. Of a tmt 



-® 



JU8TIFICATIOX TO ADULT GONTERT8. 55 

GFospel sense, implies fellowship-^- adoption — incorpo- 
rati<»i into Christ as ** Head oyer all things unto the 
Church " — ingrafting into Him, as " the branch is 
ingrafted into the vine."^ And here comes in bap^ 
tism, by which we " put on Christ "* — " are made one 
body with him."' " For by one Spirit we are all 
baptized into one body."* The faith, therefore, 
which according to the article is the only medium of 
our justification, is the faith made lively and strong, 
(or ** liTely and perfecty* as the Homily saith,) when 
we are regenerated, or bom anew in Christ Jesus 
"by water and the Holy Ghost"' Hence in the 27th 

1) John XT. 5. 2) 6al. iii. 27. 

3) Prayer in the Commanion Office. 4) 1 Cor. xit. 13. 

5) Bftark kcra the words of " the judicioas Hooker "— ** BaptiMa is a 

ucrament which God hath instituted in His Church, to the end that they 

which receiTO the same might thereby be vncarfcraUd Mto Ckrut, and «e 

dvoiigh His most precious merit obtain as well that atniang grace <tf MNfwto- 

(im leAtdk iaketk awajf aU former guUtineuj as also that ntfiued divme virtMe 

rf 1k» Holy Ohost which giveth to the power* of the sotd their frat diepoeitiom 

tawario figure fteimeoe t^Ufe.*^ — B. ▼. c. 60. This last expression, doubtless, 

rslera to the new li^ tm tAe eevenani ^f Qoi, or SametUfkatitm ; and hence, the 

" first disposition " to this life, the life of God's ** peculiar people,'* must be 

(eaerated, he means, wnder the grace ef^ke eovenmit iiUttf. The expression 

if es^aiDod by another on the next page : ** As we are not naturally men 

without birth, so neither are we Christian men bat by new h'lerikt nor, aecord- 

iag to the manifest ordinary coarse of divine dispensation, iMiD-Aom, but by 

that biqitism which both declareth and maketh us Christians. In which 

respoet we jostly hold it to be the inor of ew osiMMl entrance into God*s 

hoase, the frai apparemt beginning qf Itfe^ a seal perhaps to the grace of 

•leetioa, hot to our eanet^ficatton here, a step that hath not any Iwfore it." — 

Bw ▼. 6. 00, rtL ii p. 341. 



56 THK CONDITIONS AND MEANS OF 

Terse of the 3d chapter of Galatians, already cited, the 
" faith in Jesus Christ/' by which we are made " the 
children of God," is represented as the result of, or 
as being coincident with, our '* putting on Christ 
by baptism/' And also, in the passage referred fo 
in 2d chap, of Colossians— our resurrection from sin 
through *' the fmth of the opera;tion of God," is made 
to take place when we were " buried with Christ in 
baptism." Hence, too. Article XXVth declares that 
this sacrament ** strengthens and confirms our faith 
in Christ." For which cause, doubtless, St. Augus- 
tine calls baptism ** the sacrament of faith :" while 
the office for the baptism of adults makes the ex- 
pression — " by baptism put on Christ" — equivalent 
to the words — " being made the children of God by 
faith in Jesus Christ;" the latter embracing 'the 
former, and being made available by it, so as to be 
the chief, and in one sense, as I have shown, the 
only means of our union with Christ, or our justificaf- 
tion bef^e God through His all-prevailing merits. 
When St. Paul, therefore, gives to the inquiry of the 
Jailor — " What must I do to be saved ?" — ^the answer 
— " Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt 
be saved " — he means precisely what St. Peter meant 
in the text — ** Repent and be baptized in the name of 
Jesus Christ for the remission of sins." The faith 
required by one Apostle being made c<Hnplete to our 
® -— , 






JCJ8TIPICATION TO ADULT CONTERT8. 57 

justification, in the way-—'* baptism in the name of 
Jesus Christ" — ^pointed out by the other. When, 
too, our Saviour says, St. John iii. 16, ** Whosoever 
heUeveth in Him shall not perish, but have everlasting 
life," He means just the same as He does when He 
declares, St. Mark xvi. 16, " He that believeth and 
is ha^ized shall be saved." Gospel faith, then, in 
its justifying state, is something more than a mere 
trust in the atonement of Christ for salvation. It is 
a faith based upon humility, nurtured by repentance, 
pnimated by love, and crowned by the spirit of adop- 
tion and hdy fellowship with Christ.' Yea, in this 
state of completeness, it is like the pure light of 
heaven, whose commingled rays alone can produce 
whiteness and clearness.^ Let any of these rays be 
thrown <^ by the prism, and confusion and obscurity 
at once ensue. So let prejudice or disobedience 
deprive this faith of any one of its evangelical constitu- 



]) This view, as Bishop Boll has shown, alone can reconcile the appar- 
ent contradiction between St. Paul and St. James, while it is necessary to 
the pn^r understanding of many expressions in the early Fathers of the 
Church. 

3) ** These are they that have vasKed their robes and made them vhiU 
in the hlood cf the Lamb,^* Rev. vii. 14. A passage which seems to me to 
ccnnprehend in a few striking words the fountain of our redemption—" The 
blood of the Lamb "—the means through which we ordinarily come to it by 
Faith—*' the washing " in baptism " of our robes," — and the result, our 
holineM, ezpieBMdby their " whiteness." 

4 



^ f 

60 THE CONDITIONS AND MKAN8, EtC. 

with unrepented sins, as if sin was not '' the thing 
which His soul hateth?''^ What mean ye, worms of 
the dust — whose lives are a vapor, whose days a sha- 
dow that departeth— thus to exalt yourselves against 
the Judge of all the earth, as if ye '' had made a cove- 
nant with death, an agreement with hell V*^ O, what 
do the lessons of experience teach you ? What do 
the occurrences of almost every day teach you ? What 
does God's word teach you ? Aye, what does con- 
science teach you ? — That you are safe ? 'I'hat you 
run no awful hazard ? That the way of transgressors 
is not hard P That they do not stand on slippery 
places?^ O, remember, I tell you to-day, and I tell 
you under authority of Almighty God, Mo^ repentance, 
according to the hope of the Gospel,, comes too late, 
which shuts out baptism, and living faith on the Son 
of God! 



1) Pb. ii. 5. Is. i. 14. S) Ib. xxvui. 15-18. 

3) Prov. xiii. 15. 4) Ps. Izxiii. 18. 







1 






® 



i 



SERMON III. 

OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION AND MEANS OF 

JUSTIFICATION, ANSWERED. 




An exunination of the falM theories of astronomy, 
ior to the present Copemican system, will show that 
sir errors are to be ascribed mainly to basty (xmcla- 
3ns irtMU partial and diacoonected obaerratioDS ; 
servatious restricted to a portion of the heavenly bo- 
es, instead of being extended to all with their mutual 
fluences and depoidences. Thus has it been in le- 
ird to the Christian religion. Men hare fixed their 
ew so intently upon some particular feature in this 
ligion, become so absorbed in their obserratioiM upon 
, as to form in their minds an exaggerated estimate of 
I value in relation to the other and equally important 



($ 

64 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

parts. One has confined his attention mainly to re- 
pentance, another to faith, another to loye, another to 
baptism. The result has necessarily been a distor- 
tion, or partial exhibition of revealed truth ; while 
our branch of the Catholic Church, under God's 
good providence, has, as was shown you in my last 
discourse, so balanced one truth by another as to give 
to each its due value, and thus preserve, in just equi- 
librium, the whole — ^Uending all truth, so far as the 
awful nature of revelation will admit, in one har- 
monious system. 

A fundamental part of this system, you were there 
taught, is contained in the instructions of St. Peter 
in the text ; that repentance, faith, and baptism, are 
required of adults by these instructions, " for the re- 
mission of sins '" not as meritorious or efficacious 
in themselves ; but as giving, by God's appointment, 
an interest in the merits of Christ, which are the only 
meritorious, the only procuring cause of our justifi* 
cation in God's sight. You were taught, also, how 
repentance prepares the soul for faith ; and how faith, 
weak and ineffectual at first, is " strengthened and 
confirmed in holy baptism ;"* made to " work by 
love," thus becoming available as the mean of our 
saving interest in the righteousness and death of 

1) Art. XXV. 

i 



% 

AND MSAN8 OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWBBSD. 65 

Christ ; and how this view alone reconciles different 
and i^parently cAiflicting portions of Holy Writ, and 
of the hallowed Litnrgy of the Church. 

Mj design now, by God's grace, is to answer some 
of the objections commonly urged against our view 
of baptism ; as regards the sacrament generally, and 
in its application to infant children. 

I. 1. As regards baptism generally, it is objected, 
that instances are recorded in the New Testament, 
where sins are forgiven manifestly without baptism ; 
as in the case of the thief on the cross. In that case, 
it is said, our Lord promised to a dying man, who 
obviouidy could not have received baptism, admission 
to His kingdom upon the simple exercise of repent- 
ance and faith. 

I grant the facts here claimed ; but must insist 
apon them as showing the case not to be in point 
(L) The divine Saviour, who had " all power given 
Him in heaven and earth," was Himself present, and 
of course had a right to dispense His mercy accord- 
ing to His good pleasure: He did dispense it to the 
dying thief, and probably without baptism. But did 
that same divine Saviour, in commissioning His dis- 
ciples to bear His blessed Gospel to a perbhing world, 
instruct them to offer salvation upon the terms on 
which it was granted to the thief? This is the ques- 
tion for you and me ; not what God accepted of him 

4* 

@- — — ^ 



66 0BJBCT10N8 TO BAPTISM, A8 A GUNDITION 

before the ef angelical system was established; bat 
what He demands of us bj the terAs of that system. 
And when we hear Him command His ministers to 
''go into all the world, and preach the Goqpel to 
every creature," and hear Him proclaim that, " he," 
among the whole world — every creature-—'* that be- 
lieveth and is baptized shall be saved,'' ^ we can 
hardly doubt what the will of the Lord our God is in 
regard to ourselves ;— ourselves, with the Gospd in 
our hands, and the means of obeying it. But (2,) 
the thief on the cross was 3¥ithout these means. He 
lived before they had been provided ; and he heard 
for the first time the words of eternal life, never hav- 
ing enjoyed the opportunity which we enjoy of Chris- 
tian baptism. The heathen are in a similar condition. 
So may be many others. And when any of you can 
plead before God the ^iritual destitution of the thief, 
you may then look for the indulgence he experienced. 
Baptism is necessary to salvation — ^not because of 
any intrinsic virtue in the sacrament — ^but because it 
is the appointment or instituti<Hi of God for the at- 
tainment of His grace and fellowship. And, ihieate* 
fore, any of our race not in circumstances, through 
His providence, to copply with it, are exempt, by His 
own law, from its obligations.* 

1) Aark zTi. 15, 16. 

S) " W« gnat tbftt tkoM MatmieM of Holy Seriptara wkidi i 



AND MEANS OF JUlTIFICATIONy ANSWBKBO. 67 

2. Again ; — ^by way of objection to the necessity of 
baptism to our justification, it is asked, how this idea 
can be reconciled with the language of St. Paul, in 
wiiich he thanks God, that he had baptized only a few 
of the Corinthians, and that he ** was not sent to bap- 
tize, but to preach the Go^>el t"^ I know I might set 
aside this objecti<Hi with the sin^e remark, that it 
cannot be rightly made, after what has been proved to 
be the will of God on this point from the writings of 
St. Paul himself. But lest there should be some 
minds too unsubdued to be satisfied with such an an- 
swer, I reply (1) that the ground of St Paul's thank- 
fulness was not that the Corinthians had not been Ik^ 
tizedy but that he had not baptized them ; lest, in the 
contentions, then prevailing among them, '' any 
should say that he had baptized in his own name"* For 
that they had been baptized is clear firom his previous 
woids : " Was Paul crucified for you ? Were ye 
baptized in the name of Paul t"> Equivalent to his 
saying, " Ye talk of being my disciples ; but were ye 
baptized in my name? Were ye not rather baptized 
in the name of Christ ? Lest, firom having received 
biqptism at my bands, ye should affirm that ye were 



menta moct necMiary to eternal life are no prejudice to their lalration that 
want then by aome ineritable neeeaaity and witboat any fitolt <^ their own." 
— Hooun, E$a, Pel. b. t. c 00. 

1) 1 Cor. L 16. 9) lb, i. 15. 3) lb. i. 13. 



® 9 

68 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

not ; — I thank God, that I baptized only a small num- 
ber of you ; but that generally ye were baptized by 
ministers of a lower grade, who were with me."* And 
then (2) as to his assertion that he *' was not sent to 
baptize but to preach the Gospel/' I would remark 
that it cannot be understood strictly, as his commission 
certainly embraced besides " preaching," " the care 
of all the churches."^ Hence the most we can infer 
from this assertion is, that the ipain object of his mis- 
sion was to " preach the Gospel" — in which was em^ 
braced the discharge of those high Episcopal functions 
necessary to the proper efficacy of the Go^;>el — while 
the duty of baptizing was committed by him, chiefly, 
to a lower order of the ministry. But this assertion, 
so far from implying a low estimate, in the mind of the 
Apostle, of holy baptism, actually evinces, when 
taken in connection with his practice on several occa- 
sions, a high idea of its necessity. For just in pro- 
portion as " preaching" was his peculiar duty, must 
have been the strength of the necessity, that could in- 
duce him, as in various cases, to leave this duty in 
order to administer baptism. 

Instead, therefore, of being considered an objection 
to baptism, this circumstance ought to operate on our 



1) It will be aeen that Silas and Timothy were with him, by reference 
to Ada xviiL 5. S) 3 Cor. xi. 28. 



(»- 



® ( 

I AMD MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION , ANSWERED. 69 

minds as an incentive to the duty. That is, that 
while St Paul was intrusted, especially, with '' the 
preaching of the word," his views of the necessity of 
baptism were so high, that he neter suffered, so far as 
we can learn, one of his converts to leave him with- 
out receiving that sacrament, either by his own hands, 
or by the hands of some subordinate minister. Turn 
over the pages of the Acts of the Apostles, and if 
you have before doubted of the importance in St. 
Paul's mind, of holy bq>tism, your doubts will vanish. 
For, you will not only find, that it was administered 
at once to all his converts, but that it was sometimes 
administered under circumstances declarative of its 
deep and urgent necessity ; — as in the case of the 
jailer. This man, as you know, was converted by 
witnessing the miraculous deliverance of Paul and 
Silas from the inner prison at Philippi. And al- 
though it was in the dead of night, {*' midnight,'' as 
the record says,) he and his household were baptized.^ 
It cannot be said, that their baptism took place at 
this extraordinary hour for want of a more fitting 
time ; as the Apostle had determined to remain during 
a part of the next day. But the conclusion must be, 
that it was administered then, because then was '* the 
accepted time,'' and the stake was too awful for 
delay. 

1) Acts xvi. 38. 



70 OB1BCTION8 TO BAPTI81I, AB A GOMDITlOir 

3. Bat it isfiirtker objected, that ** the preaching of 
Christ/' seemed to be the grand object of the Apos- 
tolic ministry; — that St. Paul determined to know 
nothing among the Corinthians, " save Jesus Christy 
and him crucified" We admit the truth of this foct in 
its utmost force; but submit the question whether 
" preaching Christ" did not embrace the necessity of 
" being baptized into Christ ?" Mark the effect of 
the first teaching of the Apostles. Take the ser- 
mon of St. Peter on the day of Pentecost. Three 
thousand of his hearers, '* gladly receiving his unnrds" 
were baptized. Take the case of the Eunuch ; a 
man profoundly ignorant of the Gospel, till Philq;), the 
deacon, joined him in his chariot ; so ignorant as not 
to understand the meaning of that beautiful and 
affecting prophecy of Christ's sufferings, in the 53d 
chapter of Isaiah. And Philip '' preached unto him 
Jesus" This is the language of the inspired record 
— " preached unto him Jesus" And what was the 
effect of this preaching? Was it to convince the 
Eunuch that ''repentance and faith" alone were 
needful ? Was it to show to the world that " the 
preaching of Jesus" did not, in the mind of the 
deacon, embrace " the doctrine of baptism V* '' As 
they came to a certain water" — while Philip was still 
'' preaching Jesus" — '' the Eunuch said. See, here is 
water, what doth hinder me to be btq^zed?" We 



AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWEEXD. 7J 

see, then, that the faithful preaching of ''Christ 
emcified/' in Gospel times, produced in the minds of 
the converts an earnest desire to receive, as the very 
first thing, the blessings conveyed by the Spirit of 
God through this holy sacrament And we see, too, 
the unscriptural and dangerous character of that 
preaching, which now-a-days not only fails to produce 
this effect, but actually creates prejudices against the 
necessity and spiritual efficacy of baptism — a sacra- 
ment which, we have shown, God has connected with 
** the remission of our sins/'' and made indispensable 
to our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.' 

4. But the additional objection is urged, that this 
view of baptism gives to religion too much the char- 
acter oi farm. In answer, let me say : — ^If our view 
of baptism be, as I have proved, the Gospel view, then 
the charge of formality must not be made against vs, 
but against the Divine Author of the Gospel. Sup- 
pose that our religion be aU form ; if it be the religion 
of God, I see not how, without awfiil presumption, 
we can object to it, <»* decline to embrace it. But I 
have shown that it has not only " a form," but also 
** a power ;*' and so long as we do .not " deny the 
power,"' do not cling to *' the outward visible sign ** 
of baptism, while we reject the inward spiritual 

1) AeU ii. as. 9) John ui.5. 3) S Tim. iiL & 



72 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITIOIT 

grace/' we certainly cannot be charged with advocat- 
ing " a leligioa of mere form" Our blessed Lord, 
let it be remembered, on the very occasion of His 
rebuke to the Pharisees for their formality or their 
want of the true spirit of prayer, appointed B.form of 
prayer for His disciples, in which they might " wcu'ship 
in spirit and in truth."* No social religion, however 
spiritual, can exist without a form. The simple 
question for us is, Is our " form " of God's appoint- 
ment ; and do we use it to give increase and energy 
to the divine spirit within us ? This is the question 
for every one ; not only for the Churchman, but fat 
the Methodist and the " revival man." He has to 
inquire whether his form — " the anxious seat," or any 
other adopted means of awakening sinners — is ap- 
pointed by God ; and whether a person may not be a 
mere formalist there, as well as at holy baptism. And 
besides, let him inquire who, at baptism, is likely to 
be most formal — he who denies to this sacrament 
its *' inward, spiritual grace," and thus comes to it as 
a mere form ; or he who, through " the outward, vis- 
ible sign," looks for the " inward, spiritual grace," 
" a death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteous- 
ness." 

5. But it is urged, finally, that this doctrine of 

1) Matt. vi. 9. John iv. S3. 
® — ® 



# 



AND MBANB OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWEKBD. 73 

baptism was opposed by the Reformers as a corrupt 
doctrine of Popery. Nothing, it seems to me, but 
palpable ignorance of the views of the Reformers can 
shield this objection from heinous guilt. What ! the 
Reformers teach the remission of sins, or regenersp 
tion, or salvation, without baptism ! Hearken, my 
beloved brethren, I repeat the words of John Calvin : 
"God, by regenerating us in baptism, ingrafts us into 
the society of His Church, and makes us His by 
ideation.'' And again : ** Beyond the bosom of the 
Church," into which we are thus ingrafted by bap- 
tism, " no remission of sins is to be hoped for, nor 
any salvation.'*' Hearken, I repeat the words of 
Martin Luther : — ** Beyond the Church," into which 
he maintains we are introduced by baptism, '' there 
is no place for the Gospel — no remission of sins — no 
sanctification."* Again, I repeat the words of the Augs- 
burg Confession of Faith, drawn up by Luther and 
Melancthon — " Baptism is necessary to salvation, be- 
cause by it the grace of God is offered."' Also the 
words of the Helvetic Confession, containing the 
doctrines of Geneva : " To be baptized in the name 
of Christ, is to be received into covenant with God, 
into the heirship of His children ; to be purged 

1) Cal. Intt* It. 1. (4.) Calvin and other dissenting authorities are re- 
ferred to, it will be obserrod, merdy aswitiusnmg to a historical fitct. 
S) Loth. Cat. 3) Byllog. Confess, p. 196. 



)- 



74 OBIBCTIONS TO BAPTUM, AS A CONDITIOlf 

from tie defilements of sin, and endowed with Ootts 
grace to Uve new and holy Uves"^ Also the words 
of the Synod of Dort : ** Out of the Church into 
which we are received by baptbm, there b no solMh 
tionJ* Again — ''The sacraments are visible signs 
and seals of an inward and invisible thing ; by tneant 
whereof God worketh in us by the power of the Holy 
Ghost. The ministers on their part administer the 
sacrament — that which is visible ; but our Lord giv« 
eth that which is signified by the sacrament, viz., the 
gifts and invisible grace; washing, cleansing, and 
purging our souls from all filth and anrighteoaflneas 
— renewing our hearts and filling them with all com- 
fort ; giving us a true assurance of His fatherly good- 
ness — putting on us the new man, and patting off 
the old man with all his deeds. Therefore we be- 
lieve that every man who is earnestly studious of 
eternal life, ought to be but once baptized with this 
only baptism without ever repeating the same, since 
we cannot be bom twiceJ'^ Also the words of the 
Scottish Confession : — '' Beyond the Church, into 
which we are baptized, there is no ^ritual If/e— no 
eternal happiness." Also the words of the Westmin- 
ster Confession : — *' The Church is the Kingdom of 
our Lord Jesus Christ " " into which we are initiated 

1) Byllog. Ck»few. De 8. Ba|i. p. SO. 9) Bylkf. Cnifcw 



, 



^ 



AlffD MEANS or JUSTIFICATION, ANSWBftSD. 75 

bj baptism," " and out of which there is no ordinary 
possihilUy of salvaHonJ*^ Now let us turn to the 
Catholic Reformers in England. Hear the words of 
Archbishop Cranmer, with five associates, in the 
time of Edward VI. — ** Salvation is withheld from 
those who turn from the sacred laver of baptism." 
Again, the Archbishc^, in his Catechism, sets forth 
the benefits of baptism in this language — '' The^rs^ 
is, that in baptism, our sins be forgiven us. The 
seecnd is, that the Holy Ghost is given us, the which 
doth ^read abroad the love of God in our hearts, 
whereby we may keep God's commandments. And 
the third is, that the righteousness of Christ is given 
Ks, that we may claim the same as our own." Hear the 
good Bishop Jewell : — " They that be washed in the 
waters of baptism, receive the remission of sins — ^their 
robes are made clean in the blood of the Lamb. The 
water itself is nothing ; but by the working of God's 



1) Bee, too, tke wmd» of the Preabyterian CaUekUnh afreeinf with the 
Tntk/jtrnduk CoafyuUm — " BapCiim » a aacrament of the New Teatament 
iHierrta CSuiaC hath ordained the waahing of water, to be a alga and moI of 
ingraftinf into Him, of ram«no» qftiiuhj Hia blood, and r^gentratumkg JBt 
i^irit, of adoption and reaurrection to eternal life.** And " by a ri^t oae 
of thia ordinance,** aaya thia Confeaaion, ** the grace promiaed ia not only 
ofSaied, bat really exhibited and evi^hred by the Holy Oboat.'* So that 
Pieabyterian parenta are ezliorted to bring their baptised children, if they 
hare iired aeeording to the vowa of baptiam, to the Ztori** Stifper ; no ftir- 
ther change being required by the Confeaaion to fit them finr that Holy 



# 



® ( 

76 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTIBBf, AS A CONDITION 

Spirit, the death and merits of our Samour are therein/ 
assured unto us, and we are saved "'^ Hear him 
whom the whole Church styles the judicious Hooker : 
'* Baptism is a sacrament which God hath instituted 
in His Church, to the end that they which receive 
the same, might thereby be incorporated into Christ, 
and through His most precious merits obtain the saving 
grace of imputation which taketh away att former 
guiltiness." And again : — " Had Christ only de- 
clared His will to have all men baptized, and not 
acquainted us with any cause why baptism is nece^ 
sary, our ignorance in the reason of that he enjoineth 
might perhaps have hindered somewhat the forward- 
ness of our obedience thereunto ; whereas now being 
taught that baptism is necessary to take away sin, 
how have we the fear of God in our hearts, if care ctf 
delivering men's souls from sin do not move us to use 
all means for their baptism ?"* Hear Bishop Bram- 
hall, a giant against Romanism : — " We believe, that 
without baptismal grace, that is, regeneration, no man 
can enter into the kingdom of God/' And again : — 
" We acknowledge a wilful neglect of baptism to be 
a damnable sin ; and without repentance and God's 
extraordinary mercy, to exclude a man from all hope 

1) Trea. on Sac. p. 966. 9) Hooker, b. y. o. 60. (4.) 

4> 



r 



AND MBANS OF JUgTIFICATlON, ANSWERJBD. 77 

of salvation."' Hear Dr. Barrow, of a later period, 
but testifying to the Catholic teaching on this sub- 
ject : — *' It hath been the doctrine constantly, and 
with very general consent, delivered in the Catholic 
Church, that all persons by the holy mystery of bap- 
tism duly initiated or admitted into the communion 
of Christ's body, the grace of God's Holy Spirit is 
certainly bestowed, enabling them to perform the 
conditi(ms of piety and virtue then undertaken by 
them ; enlightening their minds, rectifying their wills, 
purifying their affections, directing and assisting them 
in their practice; the which holy gift (if not abased, 
illrtreated, driven away, or quenched by their ill be- 
havior,) will perpetually be continued, improved, and 
increased to them."^ I close this testimony, by 

1) Bram. on Dying without Bapt., Works, p. 979. 

S) SennoQ xlr. vol. iiL p. 370. And in liig treatise on baptitia, he ena- 
meratee its benefits thas^^'d.) The purgation or absolution of us from the 
guilt of past offences, by a free and full remission of them, (the which, 
wadiing by water, cleansing from all stains, doth most appositely represent,) 
and ooiMMquently God's being reconciled unto us. His receiving us into a 
state <^ grace and favor, His /rsety just^fing us — that these frioUeges are 
eai^mred in bq^Uem^ many places of Scripture plainly show, and the primi- 
Ifee Okmrch f with most Jbrm. and unaiUmous consent, did believe. (SL) In 
baptism the gift of God's Holy Spirit is conferred, qualifying us for the state 
into which we then come, and enabling us to perform the duties we then 
undertake. (3.) With those gifts is connected the benefit tf regeneration, 
fani^yiag oor entranee into a new state and course of lift. (4.) With these 
benefits is eoqjoined that of being inserted into God's Church, his family, 
the number of his chosen people, the mystical body of Christ, whereby we 
become entitled to the privileges and immunities of that heavenly corpora- 



^ 



78 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISMy AS A GOMDITIOIT 

appealing to a later, but no less able divine, the pioiu 
Bishop Beveridge. ** This I would desire/' says he, 
** all here present to take special notice of, that yon 
may not be deceived by a sort of people risen op 
among us, who, being led as they pretend, by the 
light within them, are fallen into such horrid dark- 
ness, that they affirm, in flat contradiction to our 
Saviour's words, that they may be saved without bap* 
tism. I pray God to qpen their eyes that they may 
not go blindfold into eternal damnation. And I 
advise you all, as you value your eternal salvation, 
take heed that ye never be seduced by them und^ 
any pretence whatever ; but rather do what you can 
to turn them from darkness to light, from the power 
of Satan unto God, that they may obtain f<Nrgiveness 
of their sins, and inheritance among them that are 
sanctified by faith in Him, who saith, " Except a man 
be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter 
into the kingdom of God."^ To the solemn expos- 
tulation of the good Bishop, I venture to add my own 
— ^beseeching you for Christ's sake, and for your own 
souls' sake, not to suffer yourselves, at this period of 
proud and reckless self-sufficiency, to be drawn aside 



tioo. (5.) In eoDMqiienee of these thingi, there k with hi^tiiai 
a capaeity <^ a title unto, an aunraDce (imder eoaditioa of penoYMinf !■ 
ftith and obedience to oor Loid) of eternal life aad ■ahatioa.'' 
1) Benn. XXXV 



T - ^ 



AND MSANS OF JUSTIFICATION, ANBWBBBB. 79 

from the commanded institation of God. Baptism, 
by His plain word, is made netessarj to the remis- 
sion of your sins, the regeneration of your natures, 
the salration of your souls; and remember, that is 
the word by which you are to be judged at the last 
day. 

n. We proceed, secondly, to consider the objec- 
tions to baptism in its application to infants. 

In respect to adults exercising repentance and 
faith, you may, perhaps, admit the doctrine of b(^ 
tismal regeneration ; but, as it regards infants inca- 
paUe of these graces, you doubt its application, and 
object to its being taught. Let us examine this point ; 
and may the Spirit of the living God be our guide to 
the truth. 

You profess to be Churchmen; and would 
doubtless regard any suspicion of your want of affec- 
tion to the Church, as a reproach to your Christian 
character. Let us see, then, what your Church teach- 
es, and what you are bound and profess to hold. 
Open your Prayer Books at the Office for the Public 
Baptism of Infants. The Church first addrestes you, 
and calls upon you to pray that the child presented 
'' may be baptized with water and the Holy Ghost ;" 
and then puts into your mouth these words :— " We 
call upon Thee for*this infant, that he, coming to Thy 
holy bug^tisM, may receive remission of sins by spirit* 



®- ( 

80 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

ucU regeneration" And again, '* Give Thy Holy Spirit 
to this infant that hAnay be bom again, and be made 
an heir of everlasting salvation, through our hard 
Jesus Christ" And then, immediately afler the bqn 
tism, she solemnly affirms that ** the child is regene- 
rate " and bids you give thanks to Almighty God for 
the same, in those expressive words : — " We yield 
Thee hearty thanks. Most Merciful Father, that it Juxih 
pleased Thee to regenerate this infant toith Thy Holy 
Spirit, to receive him for Thine own child by adoption, 
and to incorporate him into Thy holy Church." After 
which the Church teaches, in her Catechism, every 
infant thas baptized to say, that he is ** a mem- 
ber of Christ, a child of God, and an inheritor of the 
kingdom of Heaven," and that he hath undergone 
" a death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteous- 
ness," and been made '* a child of grace ;" and " to 
thank God that He hath thus called him into a state of 
salvation through Jesus Christ, and to pray unto Him 
that he may continue in this state unto his Kfe's end" 
Now let me ask you, as honest men, whether mcH'e 
than one meaning can fairly be obtained from this 
language ? and whether that meaning be not, that at 
the baptism of an infant, he is actually '* regenerated 
by water and the Holy Ghost, and receives the remis- 
sion of sins by spiritual regeneration ?" — Or, as some 
say, does the Church mean, when she positively qf" 



AND MVANS or JUSTIFICATION, ANBWBKBIK 81 

firms before Gkxl, that ^* the child is regenerate," that 
riie only charitably Aopes he ftt or, as others say, 
hopes he will he? Of what fearful presumption, 
then, must she be guilty, in daring to '' return hearty 
thanks to Almighty God,." that it '' hath pleased Him 
to regenerate the infant with His Holy Spirit," when, 
in fact, she only hopes it hath pleased Him, or wiU 
please him to do it ? O, is not this a ^ecies of tri* 
fling too awful for beings destined to be justified or 
condemned by their words? 

But is this doctrine of infant baptismal regenera- 
tion opposed to the Oracles of Gk>d ? We have seen 
already that with baptism is linked remission of sinSy 
and regeneration. But this, you say, is in the case of 
adults, having repentance and faith. True ; but what 
in their case rendered these conditions necessary ? 
Was it not that adults had committed actual sin in 
unbelief; and thus created moral impediments to the 
fellowship of Christ, which repentance and faith alone 
could remove ? But do any such impediments exist 
with respect to infant children ? It is true, they are 
cursed with " original or birth sin ;" but does this 
require repentance ? True, they are bom with nar 
tures, which, without regeneration, would lead to un- 
belief; but is this a reason why they should not, by 
baptism, he regenerated ? Repentance and faith are 

required not as arbitrary conditions, but as means to 

5 I 

® —® 



^ — 

82 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

an end; as things necessary to bring us into & proper 
state for baptism. Mow, if any portion of our race 
can be shown to be in this state without these things, 
to that portion, surely, they cannot be supposed ne- 
cessary. But are not infants in such a state 1 At 
least, does any unfitness for Christ's fellowship attach 
to them, which can be remedied by repentance and 
faith ? Have they committed sin ? Have they resistp 
ed Christ by unbelief, so as to unfit them for His 
kingdom 1 Listen to Christ's emphatic own words : — 
*' Except ye be converted, and become as Uttle children^ 
ye shall not enter into the Kingdom of Heaven." And 
again, *' Suffer little children to come unto me and 
forbid them not, for of such is the Kingdom of God. 
Verily, I say unto you, whosoever shall not receive 
the Kingdom of God as a Uttle child, he shall in no 
wise enter therein;" words which teach as plainly 
as words can teach, that little children are in the very 
fittest state for admission into fellowship with Him in 
His Kingdom ; a state to which adult persons must 
be brought by repentance and faith, in order to enjoy 
that fellowship. Infant children do not need, and 
hence are not required to comply with these condi- 
tions at their initiation into the Church by baptism 
But in after life, they will need, and must comply 
with them. Hence they are obliged to *' promise 
them both by their sureties; which prombe, when 

® ■ 



9 

AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWERED. 83 

they come to age, themselves are bound to perform."* 
And this suretiship is according to the precedents of 
Holy Scripture. Children, under the Jewish economy, 
were admitted, by circumcision, to all the benefits of 
God's Kingdom, on the promise of parents, or spon- 
sors. What, under the Christian scheme, should de- 
prive them of the like benefits, on the same terms ? 
If the system of the Jews, exclusive in its spirit and 
restricted in its advantages, could nevertheless pro- 
vide for the spiritual wants of its little ones, upon 
what ground can it be said, that the Gospel — so much 
more benevolent, and free, and full in its provisions 
and offers— expressing through its divine Author a 
special sympathy for the poor, and helpless, and young 
— withholds from infant children that blessing not de- 
nied under the law ?' 

Besides this fitness of young children for holy 
baptism, and their presumptive claim to it, they have 
clearly a Scripture pledge of its benefits to their souls. 
In the text the promise of pardon and grace to bap- 
tized believers was to them and " to their children." 
And the language addressed by St. Paul to the jailer. 



1) Church Catechism. 

2) In reference to this point, and, indeed, the entire subject of infant 
boptiim, let the reader consult the admirable discourses of the late Bishop 
BsABUBT, voL i. Dis. iv. and y. And also a tract from Waix, On Infant 



®- ____ ^ 



84 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, A8 A CONDITION 

at the baptism of himself and household — " and 
thou shalt be saved and thy house'* — implies surely 
that the blessings of the Christian covenant are en- 
joyed as well by baptized children as adults. Add to 
this the manner in which children are addressed in 
the Epistle to the Ephesians, as ** saints/' or perscms 
consecrated by the Holy Ghost to God's service in 
baptism, and as being ** blest with all spiritual bless- 
ings in heavenly places in Christ,"^ and thus associar 
ted with adults in the company of the '* faithful ;" 
and exhorted to the duties of their Christian calling ;* 
and I cannot see why, according to the Go^>el, they 
should* be regarded as not receiving, in ** the sacra- 
ment of their regeneration,"^ *' a death unto sin, and 
a new birth unto righteousness." 

Did time permit, it would be easy to show you, 
that in exact agreement with thb view, is the entire 
testimony of Christ's holy Church up to the period of 
the reformation ; that ''in all the liturgic forms for 
the administration of infant baptism, east and west, 
Greek and Latin, from that in the ancient collection, 
called the Apostolic Canons, down to the excellejat 
office in our Book of Common Prayer, regeneration 
is inseparably connected with the reception of 6qp- 
tism"^ 

1) Eph. i. 3. 2) lb. vi. I. ^ 3) Homilies, p. S58. 

4) Bishop Jolly on Bap. " * He (Jesus Christ) came,' sayl Ireneoe, ' to 



AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, AN8WEBBD. 85 

(2.) But, it is objected, that the doctrine of the 
hapHsmcA regeneration of infants is opposed to the 
views of the Refotmers. Beloved, let us '' not be- 
lieve every qpirit ;" not be deceived by mere party 
assertioNa. But let us, at these vaunting, self-confid- 
ent times, ^* prove all things." 

" Young children," says the Augsburgh Confes- 
sion, which speaks the language of Protestants 
throughout the continent, ** are by baptism entrusted 
to God, received into Chdsfavory^ (which certainly 
implies justification,) *' and made sons of God,*^ 
-(which certainly implies regeneration,) "as Christ 
speaketh of little children in the Church, Matt, xviii. 
It is not the toiH of your Father which is in heaven, 
that one of these Utth ones should perish,^^^ 

M-re §M men by HiniMlf ; aH, I mean, wtio "by B!m ai^ horn a^ain Vo God — 
Ml/Smlt) ehUdreOf boya, youths, and older men ; therefore be paiaed throoi^ 
every age.* Now when we consider bow all but always the term * hem 
agaSn* it applied to baptism in the phraseology of the Fathers ; Ireneus 
himself calling baptism * the bath of regeneration j* Justin Ifartyr call- 
ing it * the new birth' — Theopbilos calling those who have experienced 
the rite, * the new bom' — Olemens Alex, calling them ' the regenerated by 
Water'— we shall onderstand a passage which speaks of inrfiuUt as * bom 
again' to mean assuredly infants htpHtei.** — Blurt on ihe CSftitrdk, p. 151. 

*' Inlknts," says Origen, " are baptized for the forgireness of sins ;" and 
Bgidn, '* whereas the haptxsm iff the Church i» given for the forgiveness iff sins, 
inAuits also are, by the usage of the Church, baptized j when, if there were 
nothing in infimts that wanted foigiyeness and mercy, the grau if baptism 
would be needless to them."— Obio- Horn, in Jma, ch. ziy. ; in I«v. ch. ii. 

1) Syllog. Confess, p. 172. 



■6 



; ■■ "^ — " • — d 

84 OBJKCTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

at the baptism of himself and househc4d — " and 
thou shalt be saved and thy house" — implies surely 
that the blessings of the Christian covenant are en- 
joyed as well by baptized children as adults. Add to 
this the manner in which children are addressed in 
the Epistle to the Ephesians, as *^ saints/' or perscns 
consecrated by the Holy Ghost to God's service in 
baptism, and as being *' blest with all spiritual bless- 
ings in heavenly places in Christ," ^ and thus associar 
ted with adults in the company of the '* faithful ;" 
and exhorted to the duties of their Christian calling ;' 
and I cannot see why, according to the Gospel, they 
should* be regarded as not receiving, in *' the sacra- 
ment of their regeneration,''^ *' a death unto sin, and 
a new birth unto righteousness." 

Did time permit, it would be easy to show you, 
that in exact agreement with this view, is the entire 
testimony of Christ's holy Church up to the period of 
the reformation ; that ''in all the liturgic forms for 
the administration of infant baptism, east and west, 
Greek and Latin, from that in the ancient collection, 
called the Apostolic Canons, down to the excellent 
office in our Book of Common Prayer, regeneration 
is inseparably connected with the reception of 6qp- 

1) Eph. i. 3. 2) lb. Ti. I. ^ 3) Homilies, p. S56. 

4) Bishop Jolly on Bap. '* * He (Jesas Christ) came,* sayl IrensMiSt ' to 



AND MBAN8 OF JUSTIFICATION, AN8WEKBD. 85 

(2.) Bnt, it is objected, that the doctrine of the 
baptitmai regeneration of infants is 0(>posed to the 
views of the Refotmers. Beloved, let as '' not be- 
lieve every q[>irit ;" not be deceived by mere party 
assertion. But let us, at these vaunting, self-confid- 
ent times, " prove all things." 

" Young children," says the Augsburgh Confes- 
sion, which speaks the language of Protestants 
throughout the continent, ** are by baptism entrusted 
to God, received into God^sfetoor^^ (which certainly 
implies justification ^) " and made sons of God" 
^which certainly implies regeneration,) " as Christ 
speaketh of little children in the Church, Matt, xviii. 
It is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, 
that one of these Utth ones should perish."^ 

new uH men by Himself ; ftH, I mean, wbo by B!m ar^ horn again tt> God — 
i$^<mU, ehildreaf boyf , youths, and older men ; therefiire be passed throoi^ 
every age.' Now when we consider how all but ahoaya the term * horn 
again* is applied to baptism in the phraseology of the Fathers ; Ireneus 
Ufloself caning baptism * the bath of regeneration ;' Justin Martyr call- 
ing it * the new birth*— Theophilos calling those who have experienced 
the rite, * the new bom* — Olemens Alex, calling them * the regenerated by 
'Water' — we shall understand a passage which speaks of ia^fiaUs as * bom 
again' to mean assuredly infants btq^tei." — ^Blvitt on tkB Glltrd^ p. 151. 

*' In&nts," says Origen, " are baptized for the forgireness of sins ;" and 
again, ** whereas the bt^tiam iff the Church i» given for the forgiveness nfsins, 
infiints also are, by the usage of the Church, baptized j when, if there were 
nothing in infimts that wanted forgiveness and mercy, the grace ofhofUsm 
would be needless to them. '.'—Grig. Horn, in Luc, ch. xiv. j in Lm, ch. ii. 

1) Syllog. Oonfeis. p. 172. 



* 



86 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

'* The second birth/' says Archbishop Cranmer in 
his Catechism for children, " the second birth, where- 
by our inward man and mind are renewed by the 
Holy Ghost, so that our hearts and minds receive 
new desires, is by the water of baptism, which St. 
Paul calleth " the bath of regeneration ;" because 
our sins be forgiven us in baptism, and the Holy 
Ghost is poured into us, so that by His power and 
working we be bom again spiritually, and made new 
creatures,'^ " Wherefore, good children, we be bom 
again by baptism, then our sins are forgiven us, and 
the Holy Ghost is given us to move us to all good- 
ness." 

King Edward's Catechism, approved in convo- 
cation by the holy martyrs, Cranmer and Ridley, and 
addressed to baptized children, says of them, that 
"they were, by the Spirit of Christ, new bom and 
cleaned from sin, and received into the communion 
of saints." Another Catechism styled Nowell's, and 
set forth by the convocation of 1562, affirms that 
" the secret and spiritual grace of baptism is of two 
sorts — that is, forgiveness of sins and regeneration. 
Therefore, most great reason is it, that by bi^tism, 
as by a print of a seal, it be assured to our infants, 
that they be heirs of God's grace and of the salvation 
promised to the seed of the faithful." 

A book, called ** Reformatio Legum, &c.," care- 



^ 



AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWBBVD. 87 

fully framed by four Bishops and two renowned Doc- 
tors in the reign of Edward VI., declares that, ** bap- 
tism'' (and it here addresses those baptized in in- 
fancy) '' is a sacrament in which our second birth is 
assured to us by the outward washing, the pardon of 
sins is granted, and the influence of the Holy Ghost 
is poured into our hearts ^ as is implied in the words 
in baptism," or the baptismal office.^ 

Let it be no Jonger said, then, that the baptismal 
regeneration of infants is a doctrine of Popery, 
that it belongs to an age of coldness and formality, 
and is to be regarded as among the extravagances of 
High-Churchmen. We see that it is a doctrine of 
Holy Scripture, a doctrine of our Liturgy, a doctrine 
dear to the hearts, and consecrated by the blood of 
the noble martyrs of the reformation ; a doctrine, 
which, if you are faithful Christians, faithful fathers, 
and faithful mothers, you teach as the first lesson of 

1) Some penonf , I am aware, admit that the Holy Spirit is pledged or 
fremised to infimts in baptism, who deny that it ia gnnJUd to them in that 
sacrament. In addition to wliat I have said on this point on pages 80 and 
81, let such persons read the following from Bishop Beveridge— *' Bat they 
who are in Christ, members of His body, most needs partake of the Spirit 
which is in Him, their Head. Neither doth the Spirit of Christ onlyfoUow 
vpon, but certaialy aeeompanies the sacrament of baptism, when daly admin^^ 
istered according to His institution. For, as St Paul saith — * By one Spirit 
we are all baptized into one body.' So that, in the very act tffJtapHthug^ the 
Spirit unites us unto Christ, and makes us members of His body. There- 
fore, oB who are rightly baptized vUk vatert ve atthe same time baptized 
with the aagOkosL** 



^ .^ 

88 OBJSCTIONB TO BAPTISM, AS A €ONDITK>N 

holiness to your Ikpifig children ; yea, teach «s tipe 
subject of their eaiiiest thankeigiving to God, " who 
hath TOttchsafed to call them to this state of salFa- 
tion through Jesus Christ." 

(3.) It is objected, finally, to this doctrine, that 
facts are against it; that children €cmn9t M have 
been regenerated^ as multitudes, baptized in in- 
fancy, grow up without the signs of spiritual life, 
the Jruits of regenerati(m«^ I have protested, in 
my first discourse, against deciding upon the truth 

1) This objection can sorely have no weight with any person, except a 
Ca lvi n ia t w ho, in opposition to the Church, teaches that all veally r^gm- 
fraud are in a state of grace from wliich they cannot All, And thus lose the 
blessings of their high calling. With all bot Cahrinists, the following from 
Dean Comber will be conekistTe-: '* But some may doidbt whether infiuifai be 
regenerate in this sense, (that of a change of heart by the influences of the 
Divine Spirit,) because they are not capable of giving any evidences oi their 
receiving the Spirit, nor doth theie any immediate effects of their regeneration 
appear ; hence the Pelagians denied it, but they are therefitre condemned 
by the Milevitan Council, (can. ii.) and confuted by St. Aug. (ad. Bon. 
lib. iii.) It is confessed they can show no visible signs of spiritual life in 
the operations thereof, no more can they of their having a rational soul, for 
some time, and yet we know they have the power of reason within them ; 
and since all infants are alike, either aU, do here receive a principle of new 
life, or iMM receive it ; wherefore I see no reason why we may not believe, 
as the ancients did, that Clod's grace (which is dispensed according to the 
capacity of the suscipient) is here given to infants to heal their nature, and 
that he bestowed on them such measures of his] Spirit as they can re- 
ceive J for the malignant effects of the first Adam*s sin are not larger than 
the free gift obtained by the second Adam's righteousness. (Rom. ▼. 15, IS.) 
And if it be asked how it comes to pass then, that so many children do after- 
wards fall off to all impurity ? I answer, so do too many grown persons 
also, and neither infants nor men are so regenerate in this life as absolutely 



4 



AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION^ ANSWERED. 89 

of any doctrine or institution of God, by its msihh 
effects in the Uves of men, Td my mind, there is 
impiety in the attempt; as it involyes the princi- 
ple of infidelity*— subjecting the spiritual to the trial 
of the sensible — the infinite to the finite. Unbe- 
lief is not satisfied with the fact, *' thus saith the 
L(»'d ;" while it is a mark of true faith, when as- 
sured of this fact, to inquire no further ; but to sub- 
tnit, and oc/or^i^here it cannot comprehend,^ In re- 
gu-d, then, to the doctrine of *^ baptismal regenera- 
tion," we are to determine what our children actually 

to extinguish the concupiflcence : for the flesh will still lust against the 
Spirit ; bat then (Sod gives the Sjpirit also to Inst agaimt the flesh. Gal. y." 
— Part iii. sec. 3. vol. iii. p. 431. 

** It is urtain^ our church supposes, that oB who are baptized in their 
infkncy, are, at the same time, horn again} and it is allowed that the 
whole office for the baptism of infants proceeds uppn this supposition." — 
Wxslbt's SermonSf vol. i. p. 405. " Published -by the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at the Conference office." 

1) Since writing the above, the following passage from Bishop Seabury, 
(voL i. p. 133) struck me as too appropriate to be omitted — " When we set 
up," says the good bishop, " to judge of the efficacy or proprietjf of God's 
institutions, we step out of our line : we are no judges of either : to believe 
and to obejf make the whole of our duty. Water, we -know, has no natural 
power to wash away sin, or to initiate men into the Church of Christ ; and 
yet God hath appointed baptism with water to be the channel or instrumeiit 
of our regeneration or new birth into His kingdom, by which, through the 
operation of His Spirit, we become members of Christ's body ; to use the 
Apostle's style — ^^of his fieah and of his bones.' Skepticism' may doubt, 
and philosophy may inquire, whether this be so. Faith will receive it, and 
piety will submit to it, as the appointment of Him whose Word is power, 
and who can as easily give efficacy to the water of baptism to wash away 
sin, as He did to the water of Jordan to wash away Naaman's leprosy." 

® - ^ 



90 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, A8 A CONDITION 

receive in the sacrameDt by what God h<zs promised 
to givCy and not by what appears in their after lives. 
These can only show us what has been improved. 
Did the Lord, in the parable, bestow upon the '' sloth- 
ful servant " no talent because it was " hidden," and 
we saw '' no increase V* We admit the fact, sad and 
alarming as it is, that many, baptized in childhood, 
show no signs, in youth and manhood, of spiritual 
life. But what then ? Must the blessed seed of the 
Kingdom, wherever sown, inevitably spring up and 
bear fruit? Is there no such thing as idleness or 
faithlessness to hinder its growth ? Does the want of 
" the blade " in summer, or " the full corn " in au- 
tumn, always imply that no seed was planted in the 
spring ? What do the weeds and briers, which shut 
out the hopes of harvest from the sluggard'^s field, 
proclaim, but that the good seed once sown has been 
left to perish by neglect ? And what does the spirit- 
ual barrenness of baptized children too generally 
prove, but the want, not of God's regenerating grace, 
but of a father's or a mother's faithful, prayerfiil, 
fostering care? alas! sometimes of a child's rever- 
ence of a present God, perhaps, recognition of the 
Holy Ghost within ? Let neglectful parents, then, no 
longer flatter themselves, because no fi'uits of the 
Spirit appear in the lives of their oflspring, that there- 
fore no seeds of grace were sown for them at bap- 

(g~ ^ 



AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWERED. 91 

tism, to be guarded by the parental hand, and nur- 
tured by the parental solicitudes and prayers. Let 
no baptized child suppose, because he now feels in 
his heart no motion of the divine Spirit, no constrain- 
ing power to holiness of life, that he has never been 
visited from above — never had in his soul the living 
energy of baptismal grace. Depend upon it, the day 
of final reckoning will show, that God has been 
faithful to His covenant, faithful to His own blessed 
sacrament of regeneration ; that the heavenly gifts 
have been received, and unimproved and squandered, 
and then to be accounted for. ' On ! let parents learn 

1) It is sometimes maintained that this view of kqyfimai regeneration 
represses exertion for personal koUnets. Let the late Bishop of New-York, 
Dr. Hobart, answer this objection, while distinguishing between regeneration 
and renovation, ** Rbobksratioiv is the regular commeneementf in baptism, 
of that spiritual life of which bxrotatioh is the progrees and eoneummation» 
In regeneration the quickening power of the Holy Ghost is bestowed upon 
u», by which we receive the means of a spiritual life. In renovaticm this spir- 
itual life is called into holy energy and oettoity, by the sanctifying power of 
the Divine Spirit 

" Our spiritual life having eommsnced in bi^sm, we are powerfully im- 
pelled to ekerish and perfect it by the renewing influences of the Holy 
Ghost. The exalted value of the privileges of the Christian covenant, which 
are conferred on us in the regeneration of baptism, forcibly urges us to secure 
them, by fulfilling the conditions upon which they are suspended, and thus 
becoming renewed by the Holy Ghost. 

** Having recaved^ in the regeneration of baptism, grace to work out our 
salvation, we shall be guilty of the most inexcusable and culpable neglect, 
if this work is not performed in the renewing of our minds. Qjuickened in bap- 
tismal regeneration to a new and spiritual life, awful will be our guilt, and 
■ore our punishment, if, by doing despite to this Spirit, we arrest Him in his 

®— % 



9 

93 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

to be wise. Let them learn to belieye in God, to 
trust His unfailing word. Let them not forbid, in 

progreu to the sanetifieatiom and renovation of oar hearts. Tea, Chriatiain, 
called by baptiam into a itate of aalvation, how wiN joa aoawer it to yoor 
eooacieaeea, to your Crod, if yua do not improve the grace which ia given to 
you, RO aa to make your calling and election owe by your renovolum, and by 
year eitabliahment in holineii and virtue. 

** Now, deny the doctrine of baptismal regeneiatioD— make baplian, ai 
the adveraariei of baptiamal regeneration contend, a mere external initiatioo 
into the Church, a mere mark or sign of difference between Christian meo 
and others ; atrip thii Holy Sacrament of its graeeo, it» prioHegeSf and where 
are all these powerful excitements ? You have loat them — and in them yo« 
have lost the most poweiful hold upon the judgment, the heart, and the c<m- 
science of the professing Christian. Ton cannot exhort him to cherish and 
to perfect his spiritual life — it has not yet ccmunenced. Too cannot excite 
him, by the hopes to which he is entitled, of pardon, «f grace, of heaven, 
to fulfil his baptismal vows — no such hopes has he received. You cannot 
orgs him to work out his salvation — he will inquire, * What grace have I 
received to aecempliah this most serious work ?' You cannot warn him of 
the awful guilt of quenching the Spirit, and thus frustrating the worii of 
sanetification in his soul — baptism, according to your system, conferred no 
gift of the Holy Ghost. You cannot say to him, * Christian brother, God 
hath called you, by baptism, out of darknese into his marvellous light ; from 
the kingdom of sin and Satan into the kingdom of His dear Son ; firom being 
the child of wrath, to be the child of grace ; walk, I beseech you, answera- 
bly to your Christian calling, and as becometh a child ot light j> yoa cannot 
address to him this exhortation, so elevating, so forcible, so animating^- 
baptism, in your view of it, produced in him no change of spiritual condition ; 
he is still in his natural sUte, without an interest in Christ, an alien and 
stranger to the covenant of promise. 

" Say not, then, the doctrine of baptismal regeneration is a cold, a formal, 
a lax, and carnal doctrine. Properly understood and enforced, it lays upon 
the judgment, the heart, the sensibilities of Christians, obligations and 
motives to vital piety and true godliness, of the most powerful, awfiil, and 
at the same time, persuasive nature, and which no other aifoitm eon present.'* 
—PoMtk. Worke^ voL ii. p. 471 -475. 

d— ^ 



% ^ 

AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, ANSWERED. 03 

their faithless hearts, their little ones to come to 
Christ, in the deep, spiritual meaning of His words. 
Let them believe, that the Church says true, what at 
the baptism of these little ones, she declares them, 
" regenerate with the Holy Ghost, and made Christ's 
own children by adoption and grace." Let theln be- 
lieve, when teaching their lisping babes to call them- 
selves, by baptism, " the members of Christ, the 
children of God, and the inheritors of the kingdom 
(^ heaven," that they are not teaching them false- 
hoods nor fables. Let them believe, when teaching 
them that by baptism they have undergone " a death 
unto sin, and a new birth unto righteousness," that 
they are teaching them what they intend them to 
credit and act upon. Yes, and let baptized children 
believe, that when they were presented to the holy 
font, Jesus their loving Saviour received them into 
His arms, and endowed them with the spirit and privi- 
leges of His Kingdom. Let them believe the words 
of their Catechism, when they " thank their heavenly 
Father, that He hath called them by baptism to a 
state ofsahatiany throttgh Jesus Christ their Saviour." 
Let them believe, when, in the words of the same 
Catechism, they '* pray unto God that they may con- 
tinue in their baptismal state unto their lives' end," 
that God requires them to continue in it, and not, as 
some say, to be converted from it ; that, by every 
^ .__^ 



94 OBJECTIONS TO BAPTISM, AS A CONDITION 

means, they are to strive to keep and cultiy^te the 
grace granted and pledged to this state, for the re- 
newal of their hearts, the sanctification of their lives, 
and '' making their calling and election sure." Let 
these things he heartily helieved hy parents and chil- 
dren, and trust me, or rather trust God, that, instead 
of the worldliness and wickedness which now char- 
acterize many of our baptized households, and give 
occasion to the enemy to blaspheme, there would be 
the abundant fruits of the Spirit, rejoicing the hearts 
of the pious, and causing multitudes to glorify God 
for baptismal grace. Instead of barrenness incurring 
the reproach of men, and calling for the curse of God, 
we should behold the tree of life rising in healthful 
vigor, and spreading itself in freshness and beauty to 
the honor of God, and the admiration and joy of his 
people. 

But, O, if such be the blessing within our reach, 
what must be the curse of neglect ? Here some 
awful thoughts rise from the Book of God— destruc- 
tion to those who ''defile the temple of the Holy 
Ghost, which temple we are*** by baptism^ — a visita- 
tion of divine wrath upon such as " trample under 
foot the Scm of God, count the blood of the Covenant 
an unholy thing, and do despite to the Spirit of 



1) 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. 
® ^ „ § 



AND MEANS OF JUSTIFICATION, AMSWKKED. 05 

Grace!"' Brethren, we maj now be unmiiidlul of 
our birthright — wholly lose sight of the blessings of 
our " state of Balratjoii" — but ihey will be revealed to 
as again ; and if unimproved to the last, will rise up to 
bear an awful testinuHiy against us before " the Judge 
of quick and dead." O let us fear, lest the present 
absence of God's Spirit from our families and our 
souls, should only betoken an " evertasting destruc- 
tion ftotn the presence of the Lord, and from the 
glory of His power."' 




-$ 



; 




(d- 



d 



-A 



SERMON IV. 



ONFIRMATION, A MEANS OP GRACE INSTITUTED BY 

ALMIGHTY GOD. 



•J 




Acn ii. 38^-ABd jt whtll nMin lb« ^ of tha BdIt Ohon. 

In my first discourse T remarked that, in the case 
of the early converts, under the Apostles, the gifts of 
the Holy Ghost were dispensed, not at once in their 
full measure, but in different and increasing degrees, 
according to the faithful use of certain prescribed 
means. I am now prepared to illustrate this point 
more fully than was then consistent with my object. 
For you will perceive that we have arrived, to say the 
least, at the third stage in the spiritual progress of 
these converts. They had been blest with a special 
measure of divine influence at the time of their return 
in self-bumbling sorrow to God. And then at their 
b(q>tism, they were bom anew of water and the Holy 



4'^', 



yssv" 



® • 

100 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

Ghost) received the pardon of their sins, and were 
made living members of the body of Christ. And 
now they are called to the enjoyment of another p(»r- 
tion of God's Spirit ; — a porticm promised, as in some 
sort, consequent upon, or annexed to baptism ; " Be 
baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ 
for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the 
Crift of the Holy Ghost "^ Here then is promised a 
great blessing to baptized believers; a blessing 
connected with the forgiveness of their sins and the 
enjoyment of Christ's fellowship ; and hence, as would 
seem, designed to enable them to discharge the better 
the ordinary duties of the Christian life, and to make 
their '' calling and election sure." If this be so, and 
to me it certainly appears to be, then every Christian 
is deeply interested in having this gift of the Holy 
Ghost. For it is here spoken of as a high spiritual pri- 

1) Vid. Ham. et Grot, in loc. Also, Biihop Doane'i Fourth Chaxfe, p. 6. 
" Should it be objected, that by agcribing the gift of the Holy Ghoat to e<m- 
JlmuitMm, He leeimi to be excluded fW>m baptitm, I antwer, it has beeft 
obaenred, in a ftemer di«conrte, that the gifta <^ the Holy Ghoat mn m- 
tended for different purpose! ; and that Hii operation or energy ii accordiDf 
to the purpoie for which He \b given. In fropeum, He ia given for the pnr> 
poee of regeneratkm — ^to effect that new birth by which we are bora into 
the Church of Chriit, obtain remiiiion of all past lin, and a new nature. 
In eoi^irmiaion He is given for the purpose of sanctijBcation, or renoTation 
of the heart in holineii. In hafHam^ we are created anew in Chriat Jeaof 
by the operation of the Holy Ghoat In Mi|/iniurti«m, the new creation ia 
animated, and enabled to live according to ita new nature, by the energy of 
the aame moat Holy Spirit" — Bp. SiABuar, Diteoune ▼. toI. i. p. 135. 



GRACE INSTITUTBD BT ALMIOBTT GOD. 101 

Tilege — a precious dispensation of grace. True, it is 
not, like repentance, faith, and baptism, made a con^ 
ditian of salvation ; but a special aid in '' working out 
one's salration with fear and trembling."^ Neither 
is it represented as being a hard duty to which the 
Christian would need to be urged ; but rather as a 
Talued gift of which he would feel it a great privi- 
lege to be possessed, and of which he would suffer no 
consideration to deprive him. For whatever might be 
the graces he had already attained, it is to be supposed, 
surely, that dependent as he is upon God, he would be 
eager at any stage of his progress, to avail himself of 
a still higher measure of the Holy Ghost promised to 
his fidelity. 

1. The question, however, here suggested, is, how 
is this gift to be sought? How did the three thousand 
who gladly received the Apostle's words and were bap- 
tized, obtain it? Did it f<^low directly upon their 
baptism without any intermediate act? It is true, 
that, in their particular case, we have no record de- 
cisive of the question. And perhaps we ought not to 
wonder at this, as so few things could possibly be re- 
corded, and as the practice of the Apostles generally 
would be sufficient with the humble Christian to settle 
a question of form in imy particular case. And in 

1) Phil. ii. 13. 



104 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

were baptized V* They replied, '* Unto John's bq>- 
tism." When he learned, therefore, that they had re- 
ceived only John's baptism — a baptism simply of re- 
pentance, and not of the Hdy Ghost as was Christ's — 
he was no longer surprised at their answer, but pro- 
ceeded at once to have them baptized in the name <^ 
Christ or of the Holy Trinity^ — and then ** laid his 
hands upon them and they received the Holy Ghost" 
We infer, therefore, and we think reasonably, that 
** the gift of the Holy Ghost" promised to the multi- 
tude in the text is the same as that conferred by the 
Apostles on the Samaritan and Ephesian converts 
after baptism, in ** the laying on of hands." 

But we have another proof of this. If St. Peter 
had reference in the promise of the Holy Ghost in 
the text, as we think, to " the laying on of hands," 
then the things to be observed, according to Ms in- 
structions to the multitude, at the beginning of the 
Christian life, are repentance, faith, baptism, and the 
laying on of hands. But does not this catalogue of 
first duties accord exactly with that given in the 6th 
chapter of Hebrews by St. Paul, as among "the 
principles of the doctrine of Christ" — " repentance 
from dead works, faith towards God, the doctrine of 
baptism, the laying on of hands," ^ etc. Here, then. 



1) The following ii the comment on thig paBiage of the celebrated John 
Calvin. ^ At liberi fidelium, qii<miam ab atero adoptati erant, et inre pro- 



m 



ORACB iNfrrmrrBD bt almiqbtt god. 106 

we have firom Si, Paul, as bekmfpng to ** the princi^ 
pies of the doctrine of Christ/' the precise oaialogiie 
ef duties, which^ aeeording to our view, St. Peter set 
Ibfth as essential to the ter j first converts. If " oat 
of the Bf outh of two or three witnesses every word is 
to be established/' we cannot err, we think, in con- 
dading that the fourth thing referred to in the list 
of St. Peter under the title, *' the gift of the Holy 
Ohost," is the same as the fotnlh thing I'eferred to in 
the list of St. Paul under the title, ** the laying on 
of hands /' and hence, that they who would obtain 
the gift of the Holy Ghost promised to baptized be- 
lievers^ must seek it through the impoeiticHi of hands 
by the successors of the Apostles.^ 
B 3. But you will ask, was not " the laying on of 

adidoHfi plertinebaiit ad eorpw ecclesia, infantet b^vtlxalNuatw ; tmiMU^ 
▼ertt in&ntiA, ^oitqaam institcita erant in fide, m qnoqua ad eataefaetb 
ofl^rebant, qtm in iflis baptinno erat posterior. Sed alind symbolaiki toae 
idhibebatur, nempe manuoin iihpofitio." But the ehiklreir of dm ftMi- 
talf rinco fiiey were adopted from their birth, and by ri^t of phMnite' be- 
k»ged to the Church, were baptized aa infanta. Their infimey, hoWereT} 
being paat, and they being inatructed in the fiiith, were offend for eateddam, 
wMeht they had after bapttam. But another rit4 was qiplied, tzb;, ike 

1) For proof that the anceeaaora of the Apoatlea, or Biahopa, alone eonM 
66t^0rm, aee the fbUowing firom Biahop Taylor on Epiaeopacy : *< Btit Aia was 
bvt die first part of the power which Catholic antiquity aflxed to the order 
of EpiaooiMiey. The next ia of confirmation of baptized people. And here 
the role waa this, which waa thna ezjireBBed by Damaacen : ' Apostolonim 
et mceeaaomm eonam eat, per maaiia impositionem dbnam Spirltfis Sancti 

t ^ 



I ^__ ^ 

106 CONFIRMATION, A MBAN8 OV 

hands/' as practised by the Apostles, designed to im- 
part miraculous gifts ; and hence to be restricted to 
their age ? I answer, that the age of the Apostles was 
essentially an age of miracles, and that every thing 
in the Christian scheme partook largely of this char- 

tradere ;' * It belong! to the Apoatlet and their BuccesMn, to give the Holy 
Ghoit by impoiition of hands.** Bat lee thii in partiealar instance. 

** The cooncil of Eliberis, giving permisaioa to foithlWl people of the laity 
to baptise eateohomena in the cases of necessity, and exigence of journey : 
* Ita tamen at si sapervizerit baptizatas, ad episcopnin eampeiytacat^ at per 
maniis impositionem proficere possit :' ' Let him be carried to the bishop, to 
be improred by imposition of the bishop's hands.' This was law. 

** It was also a eastern, saith St. Cyprian, * daod nunc quoque apud nos 
geritor, ut qui in ecclesia baptizantur, per prspositos ecdesis offerantur, et 
per Dostram orati<»iem, et maniis impositiimem, Spiritum Sanctum ctnse- 
quantnr, et signaculo Dominioo consummentur j'f and this custom was 
catholic too, and the law was of uniTersal concernment. * Omnes fideles, 
per manuum impositionem episooporum, Spiritum Sanctum post baptismam 
accipere debent, ut pleni Christiani accipere debent.' So St. Urban, in bis 
decretal epistle j| and, * Omnibus festinandum est sine mora renasci, et 
demum consignari ab episctqw, et septiformem Spiritus Sancti gratiam 
recipere ;' so saith the old author of the fourth epistle under the name of St 
Clement : * All faithful baptized people must go to the bishop to be con- 
signed, and so by imposition of the bishop's hands, to obtain the sevenfold 
gifts of the Holy Ghost.' 

** Mehiades, in his epistle to the bishops of Spain, affirms confirmation in 
this to have a special excellency besides baptism : * duOd soliim a summis 
sacerdotibns oonfertur ;' * because bishops only can give confirmation ;' and 
the same is said and proved by St Eusebius, in his third epistle, enjoining 
great veneration to this holy mystery : * dudd ab aliis perfici non potest nisi 
i summis sacerdotibns :' *■ It cannot, it may not, be performed by any but by 
the bishops.' "— JS^nseopoey JUstrted, (Appleton's reprint) p. 161. 

* Epist de Chorepisc. t Epist. ad Jubaiaa. 

X Apud Sev. Binium, in 1 torn. ConciL 



^ 



d 



GRACE IlfSTJTIJTED BT ALMIGBTY GOD. 107 

acteristic ; that the acts most vital to the life of God 
in the soul, were employed as miraculous agencies. 
Faith, the great means of our justification, was to he | 
the instrument to the early Christians of working 
miracles. '* These signs shall follow them that 6e- 
lieve : In my name shall they cast out devils ; they 
shall speak with new tongues ; they shall take up ser- 
pents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not 
hart them ; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they 
shall recover." But because faith is thus made the 
instrument of working miracles, you do not argue 
that its use was confined to that age ; or to working 
miracles alone. Why then should you argue this of 
** the laying on of hands V'^ Why should you sup- 



1) Biibop MellTaine, of Ohio, mes the following illnttntioii to meet the 
tbore objecUoo — ^* We have no reaeon to sn|»pote that miracaloaa giAa 
were a more uniTenal accompaniment c^the imposition of hands apon Chris* 
tnns generally, than they were of the same outward gesture when need in 
ordaining to the ministry. Bnt we have not ceased to imitate the ApoetoHe 
practice of the laying on of hands with prayer for the Holy Ghost, when 
persons are set apart for the ministry, because we cannot, like the Apostles, 
eonfor the miraeukniB gifts of the Spirit And we see not why, in the same 
eircomstanoee, we should not as well continue to Mlow their example in 
reference to Christians in general, and thus, when sinners profess * lepeat- 
ance from dead works,' and * faith towards €rod,* and hsTe obeyed ' the doc- 
trine of baptism,* confer uptm them that which is next in the Apostle's 
catalogue of* principles of the doctrine of Christ,' * the laying <m (^ hands,' 
with solemn prayer that they *may increase in the Holy Spirit more and 
more,' and so be prepared for the last two of those principles, * resurrection 
from the dead and eternal Judgment.' " 

^ 9 



i 



106 CONFIEBIATIONi A MBAN8 OF 

pose, because this rite was employed in communicat- 
ing miraculous as well as ordinary grace, that there- 
fore it must be restricted to a miraculous age ; while 
faith, which was employed in the same way, is admit- 
ted by every body to be necessary to the end of time? 
And if " the laying on of hands '' was designed to 
impart only miraculous grace, why did not Philip, 
who had the power of working miracles, impart it 1 
Why must the Apostles be sent to do it? 

But besides this, ** the laying on of hands " to 
impart the Holy Ghost, is always represented tn the 
New Testament as appended to baptism. In the text 
— in the case of the Samaritan and Ephesian coDverts, 
and in the list of *' the principles of the doctrine of 
Christ " given by St. Paul in the Hebrews, this is the 
fact But would ** the laying on of hands,' ' if it were 
designed only as a temporary thing, be thus attached 
to, so as to be made in soine sense a part of, a perma- 
nent and most essential sacrament of the Church ?^- 
Baptism, therefore, being of perpetual obligation, we 
are justified in the inference, that '* the laying on of 
hands" appended to it, is of perpetual obligation like- 
wise. 

Again, there is a still stronger argument for the 
perpetuity of this scriptural rite. St. Paul associates 
it with repentance, faith, and baptism, and places it 
with them among the very Jirst principles of the 



GRACK IlfSTmiTSO BT ALMIGHTT GOO. 109 

doctrine of Christ — at the rerj fmndaiian of Chris- 
tian obedience. " Therefore leaTing the principles 
of the doctrine of Christ/' sajrs he, ** not lajing again 
Hbe foundation " Now we all know how Tital to any 
sjstem are its first principles— whether that system 
be law, medicine, merchandise, or religion — that 
these principles enter into its Tery being ; are neces- 
sary to its legitimate snccess. We know, too, the 
importance of the foundation to the safety of the 
superstructure. But the Apostle makes these first 
principles, this foundation of the Christian scheme, 
to consist of " rq)entance, faith, baptism," and '' the 
laying on of handsy' 6Le, Can we safely dispense 
with onis of these vital principles? safely take away 
one of the stones from the foundation of this spiritual 
edifice ? Besides, we all admit the binding obliga- 
tion, throughout all time, of the three other princi-* 
pies — ^repentance, faith, and baptism. Upon what 
kind of reasoning, then, can we dispense with the 
fourth—" laying on of hands V You inquire here, 
perhaps, does not this " lajring on of hands " mean 
ordination?"^ I will leave it with the common sense 

1) We find in Scripture, that the rite of lading am tfkmdt waa praetued 
on several occasions; in ordination of the clergy, in healing the sick, 
and in conferring blessings. But neither of these can be that laying on of 
hands which the text mentions (Heb. Ti. S), becanse neither of these can be 
a fHMdamaOal prin^fie of Christianity. Fundamental principles must re- 
gard all Christians, and be necessary for all, whereas, these instances of 



e»- 



110 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

of honest minds, whether, when St. Peter and' St. 
John laid their hands on the converts at Samaria — 
converts consisting of men and women just brought 
to a knowledge of Christianity, as the inspired record 
tells us — ^they intended to ordain them; whether, 
when St. Paul laid his hands upon the disciples at 
Ephesus— disciples so ignorant as never to have heard 
of the gift of the Holy Ghost, and so little advanced 
as not to have received Christian baptism — ^he in- 
tended to ordain them ; whether, when he speaks 
in the Hebrews of certain lukewarm Christians as 
having laid the foundation of the Christian life in the 
laying on of hands, but as having made no progress, 
needing still " to be fed with milk " — ^he intends to 
say they had been ordained to the ministry ! Indeed 
this is too feeble an objection to require an answer — 
it falls by its own weight. 

But we have other passages from the writings of 
St. Paul, which seem to give to confirmation, or 
" laying on of hands," a high spiritual value to the 
Christian. In the primitive Church, confirmati<xi 
was called the seed of the Holy Ghost^ put upon bap- 

laying on of handa regard particular Christiana only. Bat tl^e laying on of 
handi of which we now treat, is something in which all Christians are 
concerned; as much as they are in repentance, fiutky baptiamf the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, and eternal judgment." — Bp. Sbjlburt, Dieeovrae ▼. vol. i. 
1) ** This is our practice,' says the Holy Cyprian, after remarking that it 



-9 



® 

GRACE INSTITUTED BT ALMIGHTY GOD. Ill 

tism, and hence the following texts were always con- 
sidered as referring to this sacred rite. " He which 
establisheth or confirmeth us with you in Christ, and 
hath. anointed us, is God, who hath also sealed us, and 
given the earnest of the Spirit into our hearts." 
Again, writing to those whom he had confirmed at 
Ephesus, he says, " In whom also, after ye believed, 
ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, which 
is the earnest of our inheritance." And again, 
" Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are 
sealed unto the day of redemption." Every humble 
Christian, therefore, more anxioOs to '' work out his 
salvation" than to sustain a party system, would hardly 
fail, one would think, to seek, through '' the laying 
on of hands," this seal of God's Spirit — ^this earnest 
of an eternal inheritance — yea, thus in his warfare to 
put on the whole armor of God. 

3. But suppose, after all these Scripture proofs, 

wu foanded apon that of the Apottlea in the cue of the SamariUn eon- 
▼erts, * with regard to such pertoni a« are baptized in the Church, who are 
biooght before the Biahope, and so receive the U0I7 Ghoet by oar prayer 
over them, the imposition of our hands iqx>n them, and thns at length are 
petfieUd with the seal qf omr Lord.* Ep. 73. ad Jab. TertnUian calls 
confirmaUoo * the seal of the flesh, for the defence of the Spirit' Also Cor- 
nelias, Bishop of Rome, says, * that thongfa Novatas were baptised, yet not 
being consecrated with the seal of confirmation, he coald not receive the 
Holy Ghost "—EusEBiDi, Eeel HisL lib. 6. While St Ambrose reminds 
the yoang Christian of the spiritual seal (^signaeulum spirituale) which he 
had reeeived in confirmation. — Lib, da InitiamL e.7. 






D ® 

112 GONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

there were some reascmable ground for difference of 
opinion upon the binding nature of c<Hifirmationy ca 
" the laying on of hands/' as a Christian duty ; is 
there bo way open to us of settling this difference f 
You sometimes differ in regard to the meaning of a 
legal enactment, and you resort to a court o£ justice 
to have it determined — submitting the case to the 
judges of law. But how do they determine 'it t 
By simply interposing their judgment as to the mean- 
ing of the words of the enactment ? Certainly not ; 
but by inquiring into the judgment of those who 
pronounced or acted upon its meaning soon after the 
enactment became a law, and deciding accordingly. 
And this to you is, as it ought to be, satisfactory. 
Why not, then, adc^t the same method in adjusting 
the disagreement about confirmation? Here is a 
principle of the Gospel, embodied in the practice and 
set forth in the writings of the Apostles. But we 
differ about its application ; some restricting it to the 
age of miracles, and others viewing it as designed 
for ^ Christians in all ages. Why not refer the 
question to the decision of the Church immediately 
after the days of the Apostles ? Christians then must 
have Iqiown the mind of thesei Apostles in regard to 
.the continuance of "the laying on of hands," and 
must have been governed by it in their practice. The 
practice of the first Christians, therefore, after the 



^ : -Of 

ORACK INSTITUTED BT ALMIGHTY OOD. 113 

Apostolic age, affords a safe, and, we think, unerring 
guide to ourselves in settling this matter. And do 
you not rely upon their practice and testimony in other 
cases ? How do you know that the book called the 
New Testament and made the foundation of our 
eternal hqpes, is really what it professes to be, the 
revelation of God to us sinners ? How, but because 
the first Christians or the primitive Church received 
it and handed it down as such ? Upon what authority 
do yon keep holy the Jirst instead of the seventh day 
I of the week 1 God hallowed the seventh day and 
commanded it to be observed as sacred. Why have 
you consented to a change firom this to the Jirst day ? 
Is there any thing in God's word which requires this 
change ? It is true, that after the resurrection of our 
Lord the disciples met to celebrate this event and 
worship God on the Jirst day of the week, as we learn 
from two or three casual notices in the New Testa- 
ment. But is this enough of itself to authorize so 
great a change ? How then do you feel warranted in 
making it? Simply because the Catholic Church, 
soon after the Apostles, made it, and pleaded in justi- 
fication of her practice their authority. Now to the 
universal practice' of this same Church, at the same 

1) *< About sifhty yean after St. John," aays Dr. Hook, <* flonrisbed Ter- 
talliant who mentUHU the custoin (that of coDfirmataon) at unic0r»al i—* After 
baptinn ia laying on of hands, by blessing and prayer inviting the Holv 



®— ® 

114 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF | 

period, and justified by the same Apostolic authority, 
do we call upon you to yield your judgments in the 
question of confirmation. And have we not a right, 
from your own principles, to expect you will do this ? 
You appeal to St. Clement, to TertuUian, to the holy 
Cjrprian, to Cornelius of Rome, to Dionysius, to St. 
Ambrose, Jerome, and Basil, and to the Council of 
Laodioea, for proof of the canonical authority of the 
books of the New Testament, and of the change of 
holy time from the seventh to the first day of the 
week. But these, in every case, are the very witness- 
es,^ with others, to the universal practice in the pri- 
mitive Church of confirmation, or 'Maying on of 

Spirit, who graciously descend* fh>ni the Father upon the bodies cleansed 
and blessed by baptism.' " — Taa. de Bap, e.8. "Do you demand," says St. 
Jerome, '* where we find an authority for confirmation? I answer, in tho 
Acts of the Apostles. But although we could produce no positive authority 
from Scripture, yet the consent and practice of tAs vkoU vorid in this res- 
pect, would have the force qf a eommandm§nt,"-'JiiMmoK. Cont. Liuiftr. 
cap. 4. 

1) Clem. Constit lib. 3, c. 17, et Ep. 4. Ter. de Bap. cap. 6. Cypr. Ep. ad 
Jub. 73. Cornel. Rom. Eusebius Eccl. Hist. lib. 6. c. 33. Dionys. Eccl. 
Hist. cap. 4. St. Ambr. lib. de Initiand. cap. 7. et de sacram. lib. 3, c. 2, 
et comment, in Hebr 6 initio. Hieron. Dial. adv. Lucifer. St. Basil records 
that Eubulus and he were confirmed by Bp. Mazimus. Vid. Comb. vol. iii. 
p. 455. Council Laodic. canon 48. Council Elib. can. 77, required that 
Bishops should confirm by their benediction those who had not been bap- 
tised in their presence. " For it is to be noted," says Dean Comber, ** that 
where the Bishop was present, and the person baptized was of flill age, the 
rite of confirmation immediately followed baptism j which otherwbe, espe- 
cially in the Western Church, was deferred till some time after.** — Com na 

^ ® 



GRACE INSTITUTED BY ALMIOHTT OOD. 115 

hands," as derived from the Apostles. How, then, 
can you resist their testimony 1 If you rely upon it 
in the one c^Uie, upon what pretence, I pray you, do 
you reject it in the other ? 

It is sometimes pleaded, I am aware, that this holy 
rite became early corrupted bji^^the Romish Church. 
I grant it; — but so Baptism, so did the Lord's 
Supper, so were the Scriptures themselves. But did 
this corruption destroy the necessity of these things 1 
Because others were guilty of cofrupting or perverting 
them, shall we be held innocent for altogether aban- 
doning them t The Church in England swept off the 
Romish corrupti<Mis, and presented confirmation, with 
the other rites and sacraments, in their original sim- 
plicity, and under their original, scriptural authority.^ 

What I have said is surely enough to c<m- 
vince honest minds that the Church has a divine 
warrant for calling upon her members to receive, in 
the imposition of hands, an increased measure of the 
Holy Ghost.' That she does call upon them to 
receive this, is quite clear from her office for Confirm- 
ation, as also from the prayer for the consecraticm of 
a church. In the prayer which precedes " the laying 

1) See note A at the end of thb lermon. 

9) " We have the evidence, that in the earliest peiiod of the Apoetolic 
minittry, there waa the practice on the part of the Apostles, tftke Utning on tf 
ktmds upon the baptised, and that it was spsooKy eamnseUd with receiving 
tk§ EMf OA«s<.*>— Bp. McIltmrs. 



9 

116 OONPIRMATlOlTy A 1IBA1I8 OW 

oo of bands" by tbe Bishop, she puto into his mouth 
tbia language, after enumerating what God bad abready 
dfiffie for the o^didate in baptism— r**^ Strengthep 
them, we beseech Thee, O Lord, with tie Holy GhQSit, 
the Comforter.'' And then, as bis bands rest upcoi the 
bead of each eandidat^, she direct^ bim to pray — r 
*^ Defend, O Lord, this Thy servant with Thy heavenly 
gr4ice, that be may continue Thine for^ever ; aod daily 
increase in Thy Holy Spirit more and jma^" And 
^ally, in the prayer for consecrating a church — 
*^ Grant, O Lord, that they who in this place are coqt 
firmed by the Bisbc^, may receive such a measMre of Thy 
Hoiy S^ririt, that they ma} be enabled faithfully to fulfil 
their vowa.'' No one, not pledged by auotber system 
to set aside the plain teaching of these wprds, can 
fail to perceive that the Church here encourages the 
candidate to expect in this holy rite i^ uew gift of tbe 
Holy Gbo^t.^ 

4. Another question, however, arises in this 

1) *'The solemn renewal of oar baptismal covenant, will be accompa- 
nied, in this holy ordinance [confirmation] with the solemn conveyance to 
lou, on the part of God, by the iustrmnentality of His authorized minister, 
of all your baptismal privileges — of His mercy, that will blot out your 
transgressions — of His Holy Spirit, that will sanctify your corrupt natures, 
aid you in the discharge of duty, and support you in all your trials— of His 
almighty power, by which you shall overcome your last and terrible enemy, 
eyen deivthf and by which, shaking off the bands of corruption, and rising 
fironi the darknesi of the tomb, you ^hall enter on immortal life and glory." 
— Bishop Hob art, on Cof^rmation, Poqtb. Worksj voL iup. 97. 



» 



GRACK INITITUTBO BT AUUeBTT GOD. 117 

place V. — ^Does the Holy Ghoet descend upon the can- 
didate at the will of the officiating Bishop? Cef« 
tainly not, except as his will concurs with the will 
of God, and the hearty and penitent desire of the 
candidate. The blessing ia from God, as the insti- 
toticHU for conveying it is of Him. The Bishop, at 
His commiind, acts only as His appointed instrument. 
He baB no power of himself to do less or more than 
what God in Hiq mercy wills. And God does will, 
aa we, have proved, that, through this rite of his own 
appointment, the Holy Ghost shall descend up<m the 
faithful ; does will, that when the hands pf the Bishop 
are placed upon a head, beneath which there throbs 
a broken and contrite heart, the Apostolic benedic^ 
tion shall not be without heavenly grace to the soul. 

5. Here, then, the quoMJioatiims for '^ the laying 
cm ef hands " demand our notice. And they must 
be stated in reference to two classes of persons. (1.) 
As regards those who, with repentance and faith, have 
come in adult age to holy baptism, we pee in the case 
of the three thousandythat they need no farther quali- 
fications to receive this Apostolic gift of the Holy 
Ghost. They had the privilege, immediately upon 
being baptized, of partaking of this heavenly grace. 
And it is their solemn duty at once to partake of it, 
as also of the. body and blood of our blessed Lord. It 
is the neglect of this duty, which leaves so many in a 

— — : % 



q^ ® 

118 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

state of spiritual languor and deadness to Christ. 
Brethren, in your tillage of the soil, you find it need- 
ful not only to sow the seed, but also to cultivate the 
plant ; and to adapt your labor to each stage of its 
vegetation. It is so in regard to your Christian ad- 
vancement. God has adapted the means of grace to 
the different stages of your spiritual progress. And 
if you fail to apply these means as your needs arise— 
if you rely for your maturity in the Christian life 
upon the grace adapted to the infancy of your Chris- 
tian state — if you depend upon baptism, and neglect 
confirmation, or upon confirmation, and neglect the 
holy commiunion, you may rest assured that the grace 
of God will soon become extremely feeble, if not 
extinct, in your souls. He that would realize within 
him the fi'uits of the Spirit, must use in their order 
all the means of grace appointed by God to produce 
them. But (2,) there are others, and I thank God, 
the largest portion of our congregations, who were 
regenerated in their infancy. And here again, to our 
shame be it spoken, there are two descriptions to be 
addressed. One, and we fear a small one, constitute 
those who have been in a good degree faithful to 
their vows, as " members of Christ, children of God, 
and inheritors of the kingdom of Heaven ;" in whose 
hearts the regenerating grace of God has been cher- 
ished, the baptismal seed of the kingdom has taken 



9 



i 



% 

ORACB INSTITUTBO BT ALMIGHTT GOD. 119 

deep root, and sent up vigorous and healthful plants. 
Such Christians even in their earliest years need little 
exhortation to repentance. Alive to the enormity of 
sin, they have long since deplored their guiltiness 
before God — ^have shed many a bitter tear at the 
cross of Jesus, and sought in faith the cleansing of 
His precious blood. And they have not sought in vain. 
From* Him, their glorious Head, purifying and re- 
freshing streams flow daily into their souls. And 
when the period of their maturity in Christian know- 
ledge has come, they are fit — so far as fallen creatures 
can be fit — and they are generally ready, too, with a 
glad and thankful heart, to bow before the altar of 
their gracious Father in Heaven, and claim the prom- 
ised gift. But of those baptized in childhood, I am 
forced, in duty as well as in sorrow, to note another 
class. They have not lived in the fear of God, nor 
been mindful of His covenant. Their hearts have 
risen up in rebellion against baptismal vows, and 
baptismal grace. Brought into a state of salvation 
through Christ, they have abused their heavenly gifls 
— bartered away their noble birthright, and gone so 
far, perhaps, as with the fool, '* to make a mock at 
sin." With regard to such, O how deep must be the 
sorrow, how self-abasing the humility, how earnest 
the prayers, how lowly and unreserved the submission 
to Christ, to cancel, through His blood, the deep-dyed 
®^ ® 



120 QONFUMATIOMy A MSAlfS OF 

sins of their j>erfidy, revive within them the expiring 
graces of the covenant, restore them to the love and 
fellowship of its divine Head ; and thus prepare them 
to receive from His exhaustless treasures, a higher 
gift of the Holj Ghost 

1. To such persons, let me first address the vrard 
of admonition. You are in an awfiil state. Indeed 
whi(t can be more awlol this side the bar of* judg- 
ment ! You have been admitted to all the blessings 
of that salvation, wrought out in the amazing sacri- 
fice of God's only Son ; have been admitted to the 
most intimate fellowship with Him as '* Head over 
all things unto the Church," to the fiill and firee en- 
joyment of every means of grace, and every hope of 
glory, which came up to us firom His opening grave 
on the resurrection morn ; to all the reviving and en- 
riching showers of His love which descended up<»i 
His Church on the Pentecostal day. If " it will be 
more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah at the day 
of judgment, than for Bethsaidaand Capernaum," O 
what must be the weight, the accunmlation of misery 
to you, who, baptized into Christ, made partakers of 
the heavenly gifts of his covenant, " have trampled 
under foot the Son of God, counted the blood of the 
covenant an unholy thing, and done despite unto the 
Spirit of grace !" " God have mercy upon you : 
Christ have mercy upon you " — kindle in your obdo- 
i^ __ 



GRACB IM8TITUTBD BY ALMIOBTT OOD. 121 

rate heart the grace of repentance, bring you humblj 
to His CroflB, and restore to you the rejected bless- 
iags of His covenant of lo?e, that you may not be 
cast off in the day of His second coming to " judge 
the world in righteousness I" may not sink into per- 
dition under the aggravated doom of the slothful ser- 
vant ! 

3. And to you, my young friends, who have ac* 
knowledged the gifts of the holy covenant — returned 
hearty thanks to your heavenly Father that He called 
you by baptism to this state of salvation through 
Christ-n-daily prayed to Him to keep you in this 
state, and added your earnest endeavors to fulfil the 
TOWS that are upon you, but who, firom a sense of 
unworthinesSy have hitherto timidly shrunk from a 
public ratificati(Hi of these vows at confirmation ; to 
you let me address words of encouragement and ex- 
postulation. Your timidity and backwardness threaten 
a serious injury to your spiritual state— ^a serious im*- 
pedim^t to your spiritual advance. The moment 
you came to years of understanding, you needed the 
grace of ^^the laying on of hands,'' ^ and the nour- 
ishment of the body and blood of Christ. Your in* 
fancy was fed with '* the milk of the word "-^-your 

1) *' In baptism we are made Chriatians j but yet the new-baptized is bat 
an inftnt in Chriat : in confirmation he i« advanced to the rank of adults, 
•ad mado a perfect man in Chriat Jesns.** — Br. SsAaniT, toL i. p. 1S5. 



122 CONFIRMATION, A. MEANS OF 

moral being now demands other and more substantial 
food — '' the meat that endureth to eternal life." Yoa 
have already received from the Church all the spirit- 
ual nutriment which she is allowed to give till you ask 
for a new measure of grace in ** the laying on of 
hands." Should you delay, your souls will soon be 
in a languishing, starving condition. They cannot 
maintain their life and vigor without food from the 
holy table of our Lord. ** Except ye eat the flesh of 
the Son of Man, and drink- His blood, ye will have 
no life in you." 

Do ye say, or do your parents tell you, that you 
are too young for these solemn duties ? Ask them if 
you are too young to be ensnared by the temptations 
of '* the world, the flesh, and the devil," which you 
are so solemnly bound to Almighty God, through the 
whole of your mortal life, to renounce ? Ask them 
if you run no risk, are in no danger of losing, by delay, 
your present tenderness of conscience — ^your present 
enjoyment of regenerating grace — your present 
'' hungering and thirsting afier righteousness " — and 
of getting in their stead, a heart alienated from Grod, 
and fllled with the tastes, and hankerings, and follies 
of the world ? O the guilt of thoughtless parents ! 
.0 the bitterness of woe which they are treasuring 
for themselves against the last day ! 

Fathers and mothers — what meant the blessed 



& 



GRACE IN8TITUTBO BT ALMIOHTT GOO. 123 

Saviour when He said — ^" Suffer the little chil- 
dren to come unto me?'' — when he commanded 
the Chorch, through St. Peter, " Feed my lambs f 
What meant the holy St. Paul, when he exhorted — 
** Bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord V* What meant your holy mother, the Church, 
when she directed — '* Ye are to take care that this 
child be brought to the Bishop, to be confirmed by 
him, so soon as he can say the creed, the Lord's 
prayer, and the ten commandments, and is sufficiently 
instructed in the other parts of the Church catechism set 
forth for that purpose V* What mean, then, your timid, 
your discouraging counsels to your children now, if 
those counsels be just, but that you have not sought 
in prayer and faith, and the deep earnestness of stew- 
ards accountable to God, to make them feel that they 
are sworn members of His Church, to keep them 
steadfast in the faith to which, at their baptism, they 
were so solemnly pledged ; to nourish them day by 
day with the spiritual food set before them in God's 
Church ; and thus to prepare them for the due recep- 
tion of those holy mysteries which He has intrusted 
for them to the ministry of His Church, that their 
souls may live ? What mean their present melan- 
choly- state, their wavering in the truth, their halting , 
in the way of life, their leaning to strange doctrine, 
their hankering for sin? What, but that you, their 



<^ 



d 

I 

1124 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

sureties for the Church, their guardians for God and 
Christ her divine Head, have exposed them to the 
influence of error, or left them to the temptaticms of 
'^ the world, the flesh, and the devil " — taught them 
to regard their creeds with indifference, and the 
Church's glorious provisions as vain and empty cer»* 
monies ! Parents, for all these things Qod will bring 
you into judgment ! 



Note A, p. 115. 

The great leader of the German reformation afpreed with the Engliih 
Church, as will be seen by reference to the Saxon Confemion,* in her Tiewi 
ci coBfirmadoQ* Alio Calvin eonelvdea hia ooouiMntt wkieh I hKW9 ah—Jy 
adduced, upon Heb. vi. S, with thii atroog langaage— ^* Hie unna loeni 
abunde testatur, hnjni ceremonie originem flazisae ab Apoatolii.*' *' Thii 
text alone ie abundant proof of the Apoatolie origin of thia rite*^ eoiiBrma 
tion or laying on of baoda ;t And then after ipeaking of the Romkh ton ae p 
tion of thia rite, concludes thna — " Qoam obrem hodie retinenda pun inati- 
tatio est; aupetatitio antem conigenda." Wherefore the' pare inatitation 
ought to be reatrared iu our day, the i^ieiatition being eoneetad. The 
same opinion in favor of confirmation ia given by Calvin in hia Inatitntiona, 
b. iv. c. 19. Dr. Owen, a celebrated non-conformist, gives to vi. S of Heb. 
a lilie interpretation with Calvin*— see vol. iii. p. 33 of hia works. Both of 
the opiniona of theae distinguished men are inaerted with 4pprob«tioD 
into a report of a committee (Drs. James Ridiards, Samuel Miller, and 
John B. Romeyn) of the General Assembly of the PresbyterUm Chmrdi} 
which report, after quoting an eloquent paaaage from Hooker, prae ee da to 
remark — ^ This rite of confirmation, thua adminiatered to baptized childna, 
'when arrived at competent years, and previously instructed and jnepaied for 

*) Confeasion Saxonica de Confirm. 

t) Tlieodore Besa also aaaerta the Apostolic inatitation of eenfinDitioB. 



GRACB III0TITVTBD BT ALMI6HTT GOD. IS5 

k, witli the ezpreM view of their admiMiM t« tke Lord** Sapper, ihowf 
elemrly that tlie prtautiM Ckmck 1m kerfwrtgt d»if$ ezerciaed the aatkorHy 
«f a mother over her biqitized ehHdres." 

The CooleMion of Fakh of the BaptiaU of Eof laad, adbpled by the 
Baptist AHociatioB of this country, oontaiiM the fblleiwiBf paasafe : ** Vfe 
h^ere that * layiaf en of hands* wifli prayer, upon baptised beKoTert as 
' soch, is an srdiMmce ^f CSItmC, and ought to be submitted onto by all sneh 
persoas as are pemitted to partake of the Lord's Sapper. And that the 
end of thn ofdiaaaee is not lor the eitroordinary gfUs ef the Spirit, bat for 
a ftaihet reeeptfon ef dM Holy Spirit of prmnise, or for the addition of the 
graces of the Spirit and the inflaeaees therse f to eM^^Irm, strengthen and 
twafurlr thesi In Christ Jesos.'*— Bd. 18Sf7, p. <to. 

Mr. Jeiw Wesley, in his Notes oo the New TettaaMnt'-a work adopted 
as a lest-ho(A by tlie M tUltdit t preaeherr^says, in eomnenting on Heb. vt 
2: «* TViVore ImvUng Ae frmeifUa tfilm iiHtiiM tf Orw^— that is, saying 
lie more of them for the present-4il as ge m oMspa^tetiMi ; not laying 
iq^n Ike /wanrfofi'sir tf rspsnisncs >lvn imi sw rfcs ftotn open sins, the 
▼erywilrsc thiag to be Instoted on, and/Wtil in Of< the Teiy neit point. So 
St.Paal, iahisrery&st sismHNi at Lystra (Acts jdr. 15)r: Tmm ft^mm llUfS 
iiiiifiii imt0 tke Ummg Chi, And when they belloTed, they were to be 
b^tixed with Hm baptaam (not of the Jews nor of John, bat) of Christ 
ns MB« fttsig WW, Is lay Aamls en Cism, fjbat O^ wigkL fuim tk6 JEM§ 
Gk00L ABot which they were more' folly instructed, teaching ike r«mr- 
fflEfJmi, and tlra general jadgiasnf, called ettnuO, becaose the sentence then 
p ro — itoced is irrSTersiMe, and the effiBcts <tf it rem^n forever.'* It Is per- 
fectly nsAnifest, that Mr. Wesley is here setting finth that ezpositioa of 
CksprJNcqpiss i|f As dsdrine iff CSMvt, which he r^ards as binding npon men 
tow )-^«nMfi)g wfanch principles is ** the laying on of hands upon Christians 
the* they may receive the Holy Ghost**— Vid* WnsLar, in leci 

Dr. Adam Clarke too gives to eonfi#nmtie» the following importint tes- 



lu tibe first vdomo of his life, as published by the Methodist Book 
Coiioem at New York, in 1833, the doctor gives the foUowing accoimt (p. 
M) of his own c<mfimiation : 

**It was at this thne that the Bishop of Bristidheld a confimaUimm 
tbe CoB^pate Chordu I had never been confrmed, and ee I had a hi^ 
l ee pect for all the rites and ceremonies of the dmreh, I wished to embrace 



126 CONFIRMATION, A MEANS OF 

thii oi^ortiiiiity to get th« blewiiif of tliu amiable and ap cito U o l eokh^ 
prelate, Dr. Lewie Bafot I aaked permiiaioii ; fOTeral of the pnmektn* 
■oai went with me, and I felt much latlrfketion in tliia ordinance ; to me it 
was Tory lolemn, and the whole waa well eondueted. Mri. 8. who was a 
Presbyterian, pitied my beinf so * long held in the oldness of the letter.' I 
have lived neoHfftrtff years mks, and upon this p^mt mg tetOimmtU mr§ mtt 
ektmg§i.** 

Again, in the third Tolome of the same work, page'^lSS, is the iUlow- 
ing letter, written by Dr. Clarice, only two years before his death : 

*< Hmgdm BUI, Jicne, 1830. 

" Dbak Mas. WiLunsoR : — You wish for my opinion oo the snbjeet of 
confirmation. It is supposed to be a rite by which the moral harden is taken 
off the shoulders of the sponsors, and transferred to those shoulders to which 
it properly belongs. Now, as long as these opinions and feelings relative 
to it preTail in the minds of all parties, I say in God's name let the rite, 
duly administered, be hnmbly receiTed ; Init the subjects of it should be well 
informed that by it they have not merely performed a duty, and sq ihr may 
hare an easy conscience, but in addition they have by it taken a strong and 
perpetual yofts upon their necks, in their tow " to renounce the devil and 
all his works, the pomps and vanities of this wicked world,. and all the sin- 
ful lusts of the flesh, and that they should keep God's holy will and com- 
mandments, and walk in the same all the days of their lives." This is ne 
ordinary obligation. This they solemnly take on them when they come to 
be confirmed, and by the act they come under a new and perpetual covenant 
to give themselves wholly to God, that they may have a thorou|^ ** death 
unto sin," and a complete ** new birth unto righteousness." Sliould any 
young person say, if all this is jcomprised in being confirmed, then I will not 
be confirmed at all, I answer, you are bound to all this by your profession of 
Cliristianity ; so that, confirmed or not confirmed, this yoke is about your 
neck, and if you break it, or throw it away, it is at the peril of your final 
destruction. Again, the rite itself is useful to call these things to remem- 
brance, and who knows how much grace may be received during the pet- 
formance of the ceremony, and especially by having a holy man's hands laid 
on your head, and the blessing and protection of Gknl solemnly invoked in 
your behalf? Tell these things to your dear dauf^ters and sons, and tell 
them another thing of which few would think, namely, that not having Iwd 
the opportunity of being confirmed when I liad arrived at that age in which 

9 9 



SKACl imxITUTED BY ALHIQBTT OOS. 127 

ma u (cElHUnlnl rliU la neain it, I wm dtUnninvd bm U ki wilb- 

MWM rraebr. Y<*, I wu ocnSnnBd in tlx CollaKinu Clinnb, tl 
Briri^ in tlM }ui ITBB, tij Ihtl (srr holf mu, Dr. Lswu Bagnt, Umb 
bkbop of tlwl •», uid (fterwudi biibop of Norvich. Yod h* »b, m 
I iHleTf both ftwB nj tflmflhlnf uid mj pncIlH, ^iamx I tUak of tba til 

be my ■olsiiBly idninulBred hj Uh pnveat bkbofi of London, who wl 
|o tbrsofh Um wIwIo with u hoiiHt eouoitue* boRin God. I )»n nw 

■■lfc««hltb>IIiboaldwriUa]iUle tnctBDIhii,uIdid od Ihs Iblrd 

nt far fnsa, Bmr ullad ■ Tlis TnTsUsr'a Pnjfsr.' 



iIjihi maorsd In A* ftMi, * bjr th* ikl^l of uh ud caiuiiiig cnftiiiHs, 
whoietr thoj B* la wilt tadwwJTO,' we Hy, ' bold ftittotbli bimofKnind 
II' Wlioi ^ lb* oomj eoBotb Im like ■ Hood,' bud Toxei yoa ' 

lk» n^astinf (ho giagnd on whiab jodt ItUckliigBl w tba til 
nutlaB ia bud, lift up jonr itudud ud uy— Oa lb (TvwU tT^^H- 



I* 4r Oarinutitm-Sliibar^mM, MhOhSiu, BtftiiU, tmi PnOftf 




SERMON V. 



THE AF08TLKS' FILLOWBBIP. 




THE APOSTLES' FBLLOWaHIP. 



We have now traced the progress of the first 
Christian converts, from the earliest movement, 
through the preaching of the word, of the Holy 
Spirit upon their hearts, to the bestowment of His 
sealing giils, in " the laying on of hands." Blest 
with the grace of repentance, the regeneration of 
baptism, the seal of fellowship with God the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghoat, in confirmation, they 
are sent forth, cheered by the prayers and encourage- 
ments of the Church, into the world, to " work 
their salvation,"' and "make their calling and elec- 
tion sure."' But they are taught to regard themselves 

I) Phil. U. 19. B) 9 Pel. 1. 10. 



©- 

132 THE apostles' fellowship. 



1 






as still in the midst of danger ; still under necessity g 
to see to it, that they " receive not the grace of God 
in vain ;" ^ under necessity to abide by the ark of the 
holy covenant, to strengthen within them, by every i 
instituted means, the various ties of that hc^y fellow- 
ship, that blessed " communion of saints," of which 
it is their high privilege to be partakers. " They 
continue, therefore, steadfastly in the Apostles' doc- 
trine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and 
in prayers." 

No apology will be required of me, for passing 
over the modern interpretations of this text, and 
adopting the one most agreeable to the original 
Greek, and the sense of the primitive Church. 

1. The new converts, having received their sym- 
bol of faith from the Apostles, been admitted by them 
to holy baptism, confirmed in the grace of regenera- 
tion by " the laying on of their hands," " continue 
steadfastly in the Apostles* doctrine ;" or firmly ad- 
here, notwithstanding the efforts for their apostacy, to 
the faith into which they had been baptized, or to 
their baptismal creed. This, I shall not hesitate to 
affirm, was, in substance, our Apostles' Creed, now 
in the Book of Common Prayer. 

Thpt the Church received from the Apostles a 

1) 2 Cor. vi. 1. 
® .^ 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 1^ 

baptismal creed is attested by the ccmeurrent voice of 
primitive antiquity.' The words of Irens^s are : 
** The Church received from the Apostles and their 
disciples this faith or creed;"* which Tertullian 
styles, ''the rule offaith,"^ affirming that "it de- 
scended to us from the beginning of the Gospel."^ 
Hence we find manifest notices of such a creed scat- 
tered throughout the Apostolic Epistles, under the 
different titles — " the form of doctrine,"* " the rule,"* 
" the depositum committed to our trust,"^ " the form 
of sound words,"^ " the faith once delivered to the 
saints."' Again, this baptismal creed seems to have 
been prepared by the Twelve^ as was necessary at 
the very beginning of their ministry. A writer near 
the age, and under the name of St. Clement of 
Rome/° says, in a letter to the Bishop of Jerusalem, 

]) The followinf are the woida of a disttngaished writer ae quoted bj 
Dean Comber. Oimies orthodox! patres affirmant lymbolum ab ipais apoa- 
tolii eonditam.— SizTUs Ssifxirt. BihU^Uuc L ii. Verho JIfotUL With 
him agree Luther, Calvin, Beza, P. Martyr, and Ballinger ; aa do ako the 
Confeuions of Saxony, France and Bohemia. Vide Lnther, detiibus Sym- 
bol. Calv. Inst. lib. 2. Bez. Annot. in Bom. zii. 6. P. Mart. Loc Com. 
Miea. Balling. Decad. Bax. Ccmfes. c. 5. Gal. Confea. Art 5. Coofea. 
Behem. 

S) Advr. HsBr. 1. 1. c. 2. 3) De Prescrip. adyr. Her. L i. c. 13. 

4) Advr. Praz. c. S. 5) Bom. vi. 17. 6) 6aL vi. 16. PhiL iii. 16. 

7) 1 Tim. vi. 90. Jerome layi , Fidei iepMitttm custoiL See alfo Chiys. 
in loo. 8) 8 Tim. i. 13. ») Jude 3. 

10) The following are the words of Dean Comber in introducing this pas- 
sage : " Clemens Romanos in his epistle to our Lord's brother, (notto Jgrnes^ 

it : * 



^ 



134 THE apostles' fellowship. 



I 



** that the Apostles having received the gift of tongues, 
while Jhey were yet together, by joint consent com- 
posed the creed, which the Church of the faithful 
now holds." And this appears reasonable from the 
necessity of the case. None of. the books of the 
New Testament were then written ; neither were they 
till many years subsequent. Hence, as believers from 
the very first, were required to make profession of 
their faith in some definite form^ — which profession 
they were strictly to abide by — the preparation of a 
creed, that could easily be committed to memory, 
seems quite indispensable. Allusion, therefore, it 
can hardly be doubted, was made by St. Paul to such 
a creed, when he exhorts the Thessalonians, *^ to stand 
fast, and hold the traditions they had been taught, by 
worcP* as well as ** by his Epistle."* And when we 
add, that, as all other creeds profess to be based upon 
the Apostles' Creed, and are traceable to their several 
authors, but as this is without a known author, if we 
deny its origin to the Apostles ; and, finally, as the 
unvarying testimony of the primitive Church concurs 
in the declaration of Leo the Great, that " we have 



as some mistakej but to Stimm, his successor,) Bishop of Jerasalem, saith, 
" That the Apostles," &o. I have not been able to ascertain upon what 
authority the learned and generally accurate Dean makes this assertion. 

]) Vide Aug. de Tem. Ser. 115. Hier. Ep. 61, ad Pamnti. 

fi) 3 Thes. ii. 15. 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 135 

this rule of faith from Apostdic institution ;"^ I see 
not that the (xmclusion is unreasonable, that " the 
Apostles' doctrine/' in which the early converts 
" steadfastly continued," is substantially the Apostles' 
Greed now in our Prayer Book. 

Here, then, is a form of sound words, provided by 
the Apostles for the first Christians — ^fundamental in 
its character — ^infallible as ^^ a rule of faith" — intelli- 
gible to all classes — easily learned by heart, and as 
easily retained ; and not more a guide to the truth, 
than a shield, broad and impenetrable, agunst heresy. 
No wonder that these Christians adhered to it with a 
firm and dauntless courage— -cherishing it sacredly in 
their hearts — giving it depth, and e3q>ansion, and 
power within them, by meditation upon other " words 



1) Serm. II. de paat. Vide Ambroa. Epiit. 81, ia whieb li« aAmM that 
** this creed wai made by the twelre Apoftlei." Abo Jerome, "Eip. ad Pam. , 
where he styles it ** the symbol of our fiuth and hope handed down from the 
Apostles.** Al so St. An^stine, de Bapt. in Donat. I. ir. e. 94, an J, firmlly 
Suffinus, Exposit. SymboL ad CaL Cyprian, p. 17. 

I know the learned Bingham has used some arguments, and qooted some 
great names, to sustain the opposite conclusion, but, in my view, to rery lit- 
tle account. The only argument deserring notice is that drawn from the 
fact, that the early F&then call all creeds then in use ^ottoUeaL The ex- 
amination even which I have been able to make, shows that nothing more 
is to be inferred from this frict than that the Fathers trace all the primitive 
creeds to the Apostles* Creed as their common origin. A mother bank gives 
existence and name to all her distant branches. Dean Comber I cannot but 
regard as having sufficiently answered, in anticipation, every objection that 
has or can be urged against the above view. 



ti^ 



196 TU AP08TLE8' P9I.L01FSH1P. 

of eternal life^' — ^' contending earnestly for k" — ^' not 
counting their lives dear unto themselves, if having 
kepi this iiuth, they might finish their course with 
joy."* 

2. But again, they " continued steadfastly in the 
Apostles' fellowship/' Made partakers of that fellow- 
ship in holy baptism, confirmed in it by " the laying 
on of hands/' and knit together in it still more closely 
by the power of faith and love*— which kept them stead- 
fast, and gave them increase in their hxAy pr<^ession 
— ^they suffer no rq>Toache)3 nor persecutions that 
might be heqied upon the Apostlesr-their *' ministers 
in Christ's stead " — to force them firom their commu- 
nion. But adhering to them as disciples to a master 
— cleaning upon them as children upon a father — ^they 
make common cause with them against every foe, be- 
come equal sharers with them in every tie of fi^end- 
ship, and every blessing of the Gospel of peace; thus 
*' in one heart and one spirit striving together with 
them for the faith of the Gospel."* 

3. Moreover, they continued steadfastly in the 
Apostles' hreaMng of bread. For thus the words 
may well be put together. The Greek, indeed, as 
well as the whole drift of the passage, seems to re- 
quire it. Hence the meaning is, that these first 

1) Acts zx. 34. S) PliiL i 97. 



THE A^OgTLES' FELLOWSHIP. 187 

Christians persevered, not onlj in that kindly inter- 
course and hospitality, that intercommunity of earthly 
blessings, which flowed from the new and heavenly 
fellowship, but also in a faithful participation of the 
body and blood of Christ, in His holy supper ;Mn a 
devout and thankful regard to the commanded sacra- 
ment received from their Lord by His Apostles, and, 
through this instrumentality, delivered to them, in 
the deep and startling language — " Take, eat, this is 
MT BODY," ''Drink ye all of this, for this is mt 
BLOOD ;"^ in an earnest and trembling conviction of 
the necessity, to their souls' life and health, of this 
*' spiritual food and sustenance " — a conviction deep- 
ened in their minds, doubtless, by the awful words of 



1) Dr. Bloomfield, in his comment upon this passage, uses the following 
lanfuage— " Now this may be anderstood of the Euekaruty yet as rerse 46 
undoubtedly has reference to the same subject^ and cannot be to underHoody** 
Ate. Had the doctor attended carefully to the reasoning of the venerable 
and learned Joseph Mede, B. ii. Dis. 1 Cor. 11,53, I feel morally certain, 
that he would, to say the least, have been much less positive in this last 
assertion, respecting the allusion of v. 46. For to my mind, after having 
read the argument of this most able and estimable divine, it is perfectly 
clear that this 46th verse means, (to use his words,) '* That when they 
had performed their daily devotions in the temple, at the accustomed times 
of praye'r there, they ust<d to resort immediately to the CenuicttZvni, or ' upper 
room of Sion,' and there, having celebrated the mystical banquet of the 
Holy Eucharist, afterwards took their ordinary and necessary repast with 
gladness and singleness of heart." See the whole argument of Mede on 
these verses. 

2) Matt. xxvi. ft-TS. 

7* 

® ^^ ® 

4f 



138 THB apostles' fellowship. 

the Saviour, inculcated by the twelve — " Except ye 
eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, 
ye have no life in you." " He that eateth my flesh, 
drinketh my blood, dwellethin me, and I in him."^ 

And, finally, they continued steadfastly in the 
Apostles* prayers. 

On looking over the accounts in the Acts, of the 
occasions when the Apostles preached to the people, 
we are struck with the circumstance, that at such 
times no prayers were used. This, however, was 
doubtless owing to the fact, that in these assemblies 
there were few or no persons to make the required 
responses.^ But we must not thence conclude, that 
the Church at that period was without public warship. 
The truth is, that, even then, there was the consecra- 
ted " upper room," or " house of prayer," to which 
the true worshippers were accustomed, after the more 
public teaching, to retire for " prayer and breaking 
of bread." Here the Apostles, or their subordinate 
ministers, were wont to conduct the devotions of the 
faithful. In these devotions, or prayers, it was, that 
the first converts " steadfastly continued." 

Thus we have an epitome of Christian duty, to 

1) John yi. 53,55. 

3) For the character of pablic worship accordiog to the Apoetolic model, 
let the reader consult Thomdike on the Public Service of Chd ; BckmU oh 
Prayer ; and a capital tract called the Blacksmith^s Letters. 

® - - ^ 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 138 

which, for their soals' welfare, the Apostolic Chris- 
tians had recourse after confirmation. 

Before applying the subject to oarseWes, I most 
notice, somewhat at large, a remarkable feature in 
this system of practical godliness. The Apostles are 
its centre — ^the bond of the spiritual brotherhood — ^the 
standard-bearers, around whom rally the spiritual 
host '^ There were added unto them" by baptism, 
" three thousand souls." And now it is, in " their 
doctrine, and fellowship, and breaking of bread, and 
prayers," that they " continue steadfast." * Here, then, 
not in x>ne — ^not in St. Peter, as say the Romanists — 
but in all the Apostles, there is a centre of unity, a 
channel of divine authority, necessary to the essence 
and being of the holy Church. For, being added to 
them, in Scripture language, is the same as being 
added to the Church, or to the Lord.^ Now, in what 
does this pre-eminence of the Apostles consist ? And 
how does it interest ourselves at the present time ? 
(1) In what does it consist? Not surely in their 
being " Head over all things unto the Church." This 
position, I need not tell you, is occupied by Him, — 
and without rival, or associate, — who so '* loved the 



1) See on this point, the admirable charge of the Bishop of New Jersey 

-^ThB PXITTKCOSTAI' FaTTXEI'. 

3) Acts ii. 41, 47; y. 14. 
® -^ 



140 THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 

Church that He gave Himself for it."^ Neither in 
their possessing miraculous powers, and being the 
medium of God's revelation to His people. These 
gifts and functions they shared with others subordi- 
nate in office to themselTCs. Why, then, did the first 
Christians adhere so scrupulously to the Apostles, and 
make their adherence to them so vital to their own 
** growth in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord 
Jesus Christ V* Verily, dear brethren, because their 
and our divine Master said to these Apostles — '' As 
my Father sent me, so send I you"^ Because He 
said to them — " Feed my sheep ; feed my lambs." ^ 
Because '^ He breathed on them, and said, ' Receive 
ye the Holy Ghost ; whosesoever sins ye remit, they 
are remitted unto them ; and whosesoever sins ye re- 
tain, they are retained.' "^ Because, as the Head of 

1) Eph. T. 35. 

3) St. John xz. 31. On this text, the omcototitfiu of the WeHmmster 
AitenMy (a Prub^iterian commentary) employ the following language— ^* He 
gave them a miaiion and charge before, but at preachers, to warn the Jowa 
to hear Christ ; but now he sendeth them as Apostles and ambassadors to 
other nations, committing the ministry to their execution which Himself 
had perfonned in teaching ; He appointed them and fActr sueeuton His 
surrogates in Bis absence. See Eph. iv. 11. And that their authority to 
preach might be understood to be Ood'^a ovm ordiiumcey He telleth them that 
aa his Father sent Him, so He sendeth them to preach to all nations his 
name." 

3) St. John xxi. 13, 14. 

4) lb. XX. 523, S3. On these verses, " V^hosesoeyer sins ye remit," &,e.,the 
same comment has these words, *< This power is equally given to all of the dlt- 



® 



THB AP08TLB8' FBLLOW8HIP. 141 

the Church, and the diyiiie source of all authority iu 
ity He said to them — ** All power is giTen unto mb in 
heaven and earth ; go ye, thbreforb, and disciple 
all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have com- 
manded Tou ; and lo ! I am with you always, even 
unto the end ef the world" The twelve Apostles, 
therefore, were adhered to by the first Christians, as 
the centre of unity in the Church, because of their 
mMsteriai commission. A commission to call upon 
men to repent and turn by faith to Christ — instru- 



eiplei and ikeit nueessonretpeeUveif ijbrtt, in reipeet to the doctrine of fkith 
and repentance, as the key of beayen committed to tksir mmwfry, whieh, ac- 
cording at it i» received and obeyed, bindeth and iooaeth ; if we repent and 
believe here on earth, God forgiveth in heaven ; and it ii the iKim»ter*s ojfiee to 
preach the aame in general, and to apply it pmOadarlif for the comfort and 
instruction of the truly penitent. SeumMfi^ in respect to the power of cs- 
eonmminMtum wnd absobfLtion^ which is in discipline, that the spirit may be 
saved in the day of the Lord." — 1 Cor. v. 5. Bee further on this text the 
following, from the PreahyUrian Ctntfuaum qf F\tiih, chap. zzx. 1,0. ** The 
Lord Jesus, as King and Head of His Church, hath therein appointed a gov- 
ernment in the hand of Church officers, distinct from the civil magistrate. 
To these eifieers the Asys if the kingdom qf hetsveH an eemmittei, by virtue 
whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit ehu^to shnt that 
kingdotn against tke impenitent^ both by word and censures ; and to open il 
wito penitent tinnera, by the ministry of the Gospel, and by absolutien from 
censures, as occasion shall require.'* 

For the true, Catholic, Apostolic doctrine of Sacerdotal Aboel^fien, see 
an able and conclusive sermon, with this title, by the Rev. Moses A. Curtis, 
Rector of St. Blatthew's Church, Hillsboro', N, C. 



'^ 



# 

142 THE apostles' fellowship. 

mentally to unite them to Him by holy baptism — to 
teach them in His name to observe His precepts — ^to ft 
give them the seal of His Spirit in '' the laying on of 
hands" — ^to impart to them His body and blood in the 
holy Eucharist — to lead them to the throne of His 
mercy in the House of Prayer — ^to absolve them in 
His name, and by His command, from repented sins, 
and to exercise over them the godly discipline of His 
Church. These are the things which we perceive, 
from their Master's commission, and their own acts 
thus far, constitute the peculiar features of their 
Apostleship, and cause believers to rally around them, 
as " the ministers of reconciliation" — " The Ambas- 
sadors in Christ's stead." 

(2.) But have we an interest in this high commis- 
sion ? Was it perpetuated, as first instituted in the 
Church, as an essential element of its existence and 
efficiency ? We find it so, surely, after the time re- 
ferred to in the text. For what other inference can 
be drawn from such language as this to the samts at 
Ephesus ? — " When He ascended up on high. He led 
captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. And He 
gave some apostles, and some prophets, and some 
evangelists, and some pastors and teachers ; — ^for the 
perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for 
the edifying of the Body of Christ ; till we all come 
in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the 

® .^ 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 143 

Son of God, unto a perfect man nnto the measure of 
the stature of the fulness of Christ : that we hence- 
forth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and car- 
ried about by every wind of doctrine ; but speaking 
the truth in love, may grow up into Him in all things, 
which is the Head, even Christ ; from whom the 
whole body fitly joined together^ and campacitd by 
that which every joint supplieth, according to the 
effectual working in the measure of every part, ma- 
keth increase of the body, unto the edifying of itself 
in love."^ What words could be found capable of 
setting forth more strongly the essential union of the 
Apostolic ministers and people to their mutual fellow- 
ship in Christ, their Head — " From which all the body 
by joints and bands, having nourishment ministered, 

1) Epfa. IT. 8—16. ** In this paiiage," sayi Calvin, referring to the one 
cited above fitnn I^esiani, iv. " be (St. Panl) show* tbat the miniatry of men, 
which God employs in the government of the Church, is the prtuc^poZ bond 
vehich holds the fiuthfol together in one body." He also indicates that the 
Church cannot be preserved in perfect safety, unless it be supported by those 
means which God has been pleased to appoint for its preservation. * Christ,' 
he says, * ascended up far above all heavens that he might fill all things.' And 
tills is the way in which he does it. Bg meana tfHts ministers^ to whom He 
has committed this office, and on whom He has bestowed grace to discharge it, 
Ho dispenses and distributes His gifts to the Church. Whoever, therefore, 
either aims to abolish or undervalue this order, of which we are treating, 
and this i^cios of government, attempts to disorganize the Church, or to 
ntbvart and destroy U aUogtther. For Ught and heat are not ao essential to 
the sun, nor any meat and drink so necessary to the nouriahment and sustenance 
of ihs present life, as the Apostolical and pastoral office is to Ike preservation of 
the (Starch in the world." — Tnstit. b, iv. chap. 3. 

^ _ 



9 

144 THE APOSTLEd' FELLOWSHIP. 

increaseth with the increase of God." ^ If the holy 
ministry, as here represented, constitute " the jauUs 
and bands by which the whole body, — the Church,— 
is "joined together and comp€u;ted" and by which it 
recei?eth " nourishment to its godly increase ;" must 
it not follow, that without this ministry, the Churdi 
will fall apart and perish ? 

Besides, if it were not necessary to adhere to the 
Apostles' ministry, thus ** keeping the unity of the Spi- 
rit in the bond of peace," why warn the Churches, as 
did St. Paul and St. John, against *' false Apostles 1" 
against *' those who say they are Apostles, and are 
not ?'' against those " who, having itching ears, heap 
to themselves teachers V* And why command Chris- 
tians " to obey those that have the rule over them, and 
to submit themselves ?" In the days of the Apostles, 
thereiore, fellowship with them was certainly deemed 
essential to communion with the visible Church— to 
the enjoyment of the blessings of the Holy Covenant. 

But did this necessity continue to exist aAer the 
Apostles were taken to their reward ? If the Church 
be " the Church of the living God," as St. Paul saith ; 
if it be " built upon the foundation of the Apostles 
and Prophets," as St. Paul saith ; if it be '' the pillar 
and ground of the truth," as St. Paul saith ; if to the 

I) Coloi. ii. 19. 



9 



THE apostles' fbllowsdip. 145 

Apostles, '^ always, eTen to the end of time/' was 
committed, as Jesus saith, the work '' to baptize al] 
nations," to teach the people to " observe whatsoever 
He had enjoined ,"-^to impart to them the seal of the 
" laying on of hands," — to administer to them His 
blessed body and blood " — '* the nourishment which 
increaseth with the increase of God" — to '' build them 
up in the unity of the Faith and the knowledge of the 
Son of God," — to " silence gainsayers," — ^to " re- 
prove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doc- 
trine " — thus " making full proof of their ministry :" 
if these things be so, as Grod's word verily makes 
them, then, I ask, in the name of God I ask, how His 
Church can be perpetuated without that ministry 
which He hath made the foundation of that Church — 
yea, the channel of His word and sacraments and dis- 
cipline in it? — or how it is possible for any man, 
except through this channel, to have visible, cove- 
nanted communion with Christ its divine Head ? 

And again, if the transmission of the Apostolic 
ministry be unessential, why did the Apostles receive 
from our Lord the power to perpetuate themselves, in 
their ministerial character and authority, through the 
promise, ** Lo, I am with you always, even until the 
end of the world ?" — which could be fulfilled only with 
respect to their office transmitted by perpetual suc- 



■* 



® • ^ 

146 THE apostles' fellowship. 

cession?^ And furthermore, why did the Apostles 
exercise this delegated power in actually appointing 
their successors — as in the cases of Timothy, and 
Titus, and Epaphroditus, and the'angelsof theiSeven 
Churches — who received of the Apostles the like 
power to ordain deacons and preshyters, and to hand 
on, from age to age and from land to land, the same 
ministerial authority, to the awful period of Christ's 
second coming?* 

1 ) " I am vUk you always." '* Though your work be hard, I will amiat 
you and your successors in the minxstryy at all timet, to the worid'i end.'*— 
Annotations of t^^ Westmxnster Assemitly. Matt, xxviii. 20. 

Dr. Mason, a celebrated Presbyterian divine of New-Tork, obserres, in 
commenting on this text — ^^ Our Lord Jesus Christ delivered their commis- 
sion to His Apostles in terms which frscKssA&iLT implt a pskpstual 
AND REOULARLT SUCCESSIVE MINI8TRT. * 6o tcach oU nations,' &c., and 
' Lo, I am with you oZwoy/ &c. That this command and promise, though 
immediately addressed, were not limited, to the Apostles, is so obvious as 
almost to shame an argument. As the Apostles were shortly to * put off 
their tabernacles,' the command could not possibly be fulfilled by them, it 
seems parallel with the txia^jsnct of nations. It must, therefore, be executed 
by others, in every age, who are to carry on the work which the Apostles be- 
gan ; and who, by the very terms of the commandment, are identified with 
them in the general spirit of their commission. The promise, too, as well as 
the precept, reaches to the end of time j and. like the precept, embraces a 

SUCCESSIVE BflNISTRT." 

Dr. Hopkins, distinguished as the author of a system of Congregational 
divinity which bears his name, says, in his comments on this text, " Zo, / 
am with you alway,^* &,c., " This is sufficient positive proof that such a suc- 
cession of ministry does in fact take place in the visible Church of Christ; 
and that this commission has been transmitted down f^om one to another, 
from that time to this day ; and ihat this suceessum has not been tntemqiCMl, 
and wiU not be, to the end of the world.** 

2) F(>r the Scripture proof of the appointment by the Apostles of their 



r 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 147 

And if this was not really done ; if the Apostolic 
succession was not kept ap, after the Apostles' de- 
cease, why do a host of Apostolic Fathers say that it 
was ? Why does the holy Clement of Rome, ** whose 
name," St. Paul declares," " is in the book of life," 
say, that *' Christ was sent by God, and the Apostles 
by Christ ; and that the Apostles, knowing, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would be conten- 
tions about the averseership, ordained persons, that 
when they should be no more, approved men should 
succeed to their ministry V ' Why does the disciple 
of St. John, the blessed martyr Ignatius, tell us, that 
Bishops are appointed by Christ, and that they are the 
highest of the three orders in the holy ministry, to 
whom the two lower grades must look, as the channel 
of all authority in the visible Church ? — saying, 
" He that obeys the Bishop and clergy, obeys Christ, 
who did constitute and ordain them."* " By the grace 
of God, and according to the law of Jesus Christ, he 
(the deacon, Sotion,) was obedient to the Bishop and 
his clergy."^ " Give ear to the Bishop, and to the 

•ueceBiora, see OifDXKDOirK.*s JE^pueopaey Tested by Scripture, and Mab~ 
■hall's JWtf«9 on Episa^acy, 

1) IrsBD. chap. xliv. 

3) Epist ad Eph., as quoted by Bishop Tatxob, in his work on Episeo- 
paey, which should be in the h&nds of every man desirous to know the tkuth. 
A beautiful edition of this work has just been published by D. Appleton & 
Co., New-York. 

3) -Epist. ad Magnes. 



® 



148 THE apostles' fellowship. 

presbytery, and to the deacons." '' Do nothing with- 
out your Bishop.' ' ^ ** He that doeth any thing without 
the Bishop, worshippeth the devil."^ '' Follow the 
Bishop all of you"^ ** Your duty is, according to the 
power of God the Father, to ccmcede to him, (your 
Bishop) all homage ; as I am aware the holy presbyters 
do"* « i^y gQiii \^ security for those who submit to 
their Bishop, presbyters, and deacons." Why does 
this holy martyr make a return to the Bishop a mark 
of true repentance? — saying, "The Lord forgiveth 
all when they repent, if in repentance they return to 
Godly unity and to the counsel of the Bishop." Why 
does he make the validity of the sacraments depend 
upon the authority of Bishops ?—raffirming, that "it 
is not lawful without the Bishop, either to bs^tize, or 
celebrate the holy communion; but whatsoever he 
shall approve of, that is pleasing to God, secure and 
well done." " Let that be looked upon as a valid 
Eucharist which is either under the Bishop, or those 
to whom he may commit it."^ Why does he make 
the very existence of the Church d^end upon this 



1) Ad Trail, $ 7, 8. 2) $ 9. 3) Ad Bmynu 

4) Ad Magues, $ 3. 

5) Ad Bmyrn. $ 8. " A'dministered withoat their (the Bisbopt*) authori- 
ty," Bays the blessed Athanasius, ^ it is sacrilege and a pn^me moekeiy of 
the blood of ChtiBi.**^-jSd In^a^at CongL^ as quoted by Mamhaxx, JVMm 
on Epiaeopacy, p. 110. 



I 



9 



THB apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 149 

Apostolic order? — saying, that "without Bishops, 
priests, and deacons, there can be no Charch properly 
so called."^ Why does he make adherence to the 
Bishop necessary to the safety of believers, and sepa- 
ration from him the mark of a reprobate mind t — ut- 
tering these words of caution : '* Guard against these 
men, (heretics,) and guarded ye will be, if ye are not 
puffed up, nor separated from Jesus Christ our God, 
and from the Bishop, I put you on your guard, fore- 
seeing the snares of the devil."* " Be not deceived, 
my brethren, — all that are of God and Jesus Christ, 
these are toith the Bishop,'* " Whosoever followeth 
one that malceth a schism he inheriteth not the king' 
dom of God:*^ 

Why does St. Irensus, instructed by the venera- 
ble Poly carp in the very 'words which, he says, that 
blessed martyr received from the lips of the Apostle 

St. John; why does he appeal to the succession of 
Bishops as a thing manifest even to the heretics and 
schismatics of his time; and, as the instrument of 

1) Ad Trail, $ 7, 8. 3) Ad Philad. $ a 

3) For proof that this lanpiage is from the genuine Epiitlei of Ignatius, 
the reader should have recourse to the unansweraUe ViniUim Ignatimm 
of Bishop Pearson. The following remark is firom Dr. Mosheim, one of 
the most celebrated Lutheran Divines, as quoted by Mr. Marshall in his 
Notes on Episcopacy — ^* The Epistles of Ignatius would nerer hare been 
called in question, had they not contained what the advocates of Episco- 
pacy knew how to turn to the advantage of their cause." D» RAua C^ria- 
turn, &e. 



150 THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 

preserving the true faith in the Church? "It is 
open to all men," says he, " in every Church, who 
desire to look upon truth, to hehold the tradition of 
the Apostles, manifestly set forth in every part of the 
world ;" and adds, as proof, " We are able to enumer- 
ate those who were ordained Bishops, by the Apostles, 
in the Churches^ and their successors^ even down to 
ourselves.'*^ " If this had been so," says he, alluding 
to certain mysteries which the heretics claimed as 
having been communicated to the faithful, beyond the 
teaching of the Church, *' then specially and chiefly 
would they (the Apostles) have delivered them to 
those to whom they had committed the very Churches 
themselves. For it was their wish that they should be 
eminently perfect and irreproachable in all things, 
whom also they left to be their own successors, hand- 
ing on to them, their own office of government"^ " By 
this order and succession," he continues, "that tra- 
dition and that promulgation of the truth, which the 
Church derived from the Apostles, has come down to 
our times "^ " The Sacred Scriptures have been 
preserved free from corruptions, suffering neither loss 
nor addition by means of the successions of Bishops, 
to whom, in each several place, the Apostles delivered 



1) Adv. Her. lib. iu. S) Adv. Hsrei. Ub. iu. c 3. 

3) Ibid. Irensof wrote only about 70 yean after tbe death of St. John* 



®. 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 151 

the Churches."^ Why does he urge this considera- 
tion again and again upon the heretics — charging 
upon them the fact, that '' their teachers are far mare 
recent than the Bishops to whom the Apostles deliv- 
ered the Churches "* — and declaring, that " all who 
sever themselves from this succession have fatten 
away from the truth, and that they who divide and 
separate themselves ^oj» the unity of the Church, re- 
ceive from God the punishment which was inflicted 
upon Jeroboam ;"' and affirming, that '' we must set 
ourselves to learn the truth, among those with whom 
is that succession of the Church which proceeds from 
the Apostles?"* Why does the renowned Tertullian, 
twenty-five years later, appeal to this succession of 
Bishops, as the means, under God's providence, of 
ascertaining the truth amid the dissensions of error ? 
Why does he direct, "See whether either of the 
senses (of Scripture urged by the heretics) can be 
traced b€ick to the times of the Apostles ; and if there 
be any heresies claiming ApostoUcal antiquity, let . 
them give account of the first beginning of their 
Churches ; let them unfold the line of their Bishops 
so running down by succession from the beginning, 
that their first Bishop may have had for his ordainer 



1) Lib. iy. c 43, u cited by Mr. Manhall. S) Lib. t. c. SO. 

3) Lib. IT. c zlii. 4) Lib. ir. o, 45. 



e- 



152 THB APOITLES' FBIXOW8H1P. 

and predecessor some one of the Apo8Ue»— fcnr in 
this manner the Apostolic Churches reckon their or^ 
gin, as the Church of Smyrna produces P<dyearp» a|^ 
pointed hy St. John — as that of Rome, Cleraeat, in 
like manner ordained hy St. Peter ; afiKl as others, 
in like manner, point to those who were wrdmned 
Bishops hy the Apostles to deliver down for them th€ 
Apostolic seed"^ Why does the hdy Cy^ian, a few 
years later, say, in writing to the Bishop c^ Rome, 
''This, Brother, is, as it ought to be, our chief labor 
and study to the utmost of our power, to take care that 
that unity may still obtain, which was delivered by 
our Lord and by His Apostles to U9, their successors ;" 
affirming that from the Apostolic power, " through 
the course of succession^ the ordination of Bishops, 
and the other order of the Church is transimtted, so 
that the Church is built upon the Bishsps?"* Why 
does the great St. Austin, a little later, speak of men 
who are '' severed from the Christian communion," as 
being severed from that, " which, through the chairs of 
the Apostles and the succession of the Bishops, is, by 
an orderly course of propagation, diffused throughout 
the world V'» Why does he tell a Manichean, that tik 
succession of Bishops from St. Peter down to his 
own day, in an unbroken line,*' was argument enough 

1) Cap. zxxii. S) Ep. xzrii. 3) Ep. xlU. 



TUB apostles' fellowship. 15S 

tdth him to make and keep him a Catholic V ^ Why 
does he exhort, "If joa desire to follow that author* 
ity of the Scriptures which is esteemed before all, 
follow that which has come down guarded, sttnctiontd 
and explaifud universally from the times of the pre* 
sence of Christ himself even to our own, by the ageii* 
cy of the Apostles, and the manifest succession of the 
Bishops from their chairs ?"* Why do these holy 
men, with many others, from the very days of the 
Apostles — men of the highest eminence — men who 
laid down their lives for the truth, affirm,* in every 
part of the widely extended Church, these solemn 
facts; why appeal to the uninterrupted succession 
from the Apostles of the Episcopal power in the 
Church, against heretics, as proving the validity of 
the Sacraments and the unfailing preservation and 
transmission of the pure faith of God's word ? If this 



1) Af eited in Marshall*! Notei, p. 140, where another fAsta|e ii ad- 
dnoeifrom St. AvBtiii) ia which he girei the raecenrion of Biihepe ftw St 
Peter to hia own time. De Donat. Deiiidio, Ep. cIzt. 

S) Lib. zxxiii. e. vi. Speakioff of certain apocryphal icriptiirea aaeribed 
to certain of the Apoatles, St. Amtia •aye-**' If they bad been tr«1y tiheirt, 
then would tliey have been acknowledged by that Church which, thromh 
the 9Utgt uttfaQing suceessum of Biahops, abides constant to our own and to 
ages yet to come." Quoted by Mr. Marshall, the whole of whoee JVMm 
•A JIEJpwMrpacy, particularly as they relate to the testimony of the Fathers, 
are worthy of the attentive perusal of every Churchman. The work haa 
just been republished in this country by the enterprising house of Appleton 
lb Co., New-York. 

8 



Mai«i.«HarfMa 



I 9 

154 THE apostles' fellowship. 

saecession could not then be shown^ and if it was not 
generally relied upon as necessary to the things in 
proof of which it was thus adduced, why did not the 
heretics justify themselves by exposing the fallacy of 
the appeal to it ? Why virtually admit it by endeav- 
oring to patch up a succession for themselves ? Do 
you say, a change in the order of the Church took 
place soon after the Apostles ; that certain ambitious 
Presbyters assumed Episcc^al power? But the wri- 
ters of that period — ^whether Bishops, Priests, or 
Deacons->-declare that no such change did take 
place ; that the Episcopal authority was derived by 
succession from the Apostles themselves. Besides, 
could such change have taken place universally and 

simultaneously in all the Churches of Christendom 

comprising at the death of St. John all the civilized 
portions of Europe, Asia, and Africa — and so silently 
as not to be noticed by a single proud spirit within 
the Church, nor a single captious and complaining 
enemy without ? If the elevated position which the 
Bishops of the second and third century helS was an 
unwarranted assumption of power over all others in 
the Church— and hence falsely and injuriously ap- 
pealed to as marking the condemnation of all out of 
the Church— think you, that no Presbyter, deacon, 
nor layman would have been found to raise his voice 
against this assumption — no heretic, infidel, nor Jew 

® e 



1 



e 

THE APOSTLES* FELLOWSHIP. 155 

to complain of the false and injurious appeal to it, as 
determining the state of salvation through Christ? 
On the contrary, would all, either by their submission 
or their written assertion, have deliberately adminis- 
tered to their own degradation or condemnation? 
But suppose it possible, as it is not, that such an 
enormous assumption of power as is implied in the 
selMevation of Bishops, could have happened with- 
out exciting opposition or complaint, either within or 
without the Church ; what motives could have moved 
the Bishops themselves to aspire to it ? Men, inor- 
dinately ambitious of distinction, are not induced to 
take unlawful steps to attain it, without strong world- 
ly motives. But could any such have led men to de- 
sire and strive unlawfully for the high place of a Bish- 
op ? Privation and suffering of the most fearful kind 
lay in that road of honor — a crown of martyrdom, at 
the stake or in the lions' den, was the only reward to 
be hoped for in that struggle of ambition. Are we 
not then to trust the statements of these Bishops, con- 
firmed by the statements of Presbyters and the sub- 
mission of the whole Church — when they declare 
that they received Episcopal authority in regular 
succession from the Apostles, and that this authority 
is necessary to the validity of the Sacraments, the rer- 
ification of the truth, and the very existence of the 
visible Church ? If not, then they were guilty of 



> ■ • 

156 THE APOBTLES' FELLOWSHIP. 

falsehood, and died to attest a falsehood ; and then 
the whole testimony of the Church at that period was 
false. Then you must not trust it, as you now do, in 
determining the divine and canonical authority of the 
New Testament ; and then, O then, your faith maj 
be vain ; your hopes of salvation undermined ; the 
whole fabric of your spiritual blessings prostrate in 
the dust ! Brethren, are you prepared for so terrible 
an issue? * 

But do you ask, has not the Apostolic succession 
failed since the days of these fathers ? Let me in- 
quire, tffhen 7 where ? how 7 The promise of the Al- 
mighty Saviour to those whom He placed in the Epis- 
copal office, is, '' Lo, I am with you always" Has 
that promise failed ? He that has the temerity to af- 
firm it, is bound surely to make the affirmation good — 
to show the time, and place, and manner of the fail- 
ure ; and to show it by most unquestionable proofe. 
For, in a case where the prevailing sense of God's 
word is to be impeached, and the united testimony 
of God's Church for the first three centuries is to be 
set aside as false, none but the clearest, most unex- 
ceptionable evidence can be received. In such a 
case, mere assertion, however vociferous, however de- 
nunciatory, will go for nothing. Men may call the 
do<5trine of Apostolic succession ** unreasonable/' 
" arrogant," " preposterous," " the unchurching 



«>- 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 157 

dogma/' and the like ; but, till, by most irrefatable 
facts and arguments, they can prove it false ; till they 
can adduce a proof strong enough to show that a few 
straggling commentators of the present day under- 
stood the promise of Christ better than the inspired 
men did, to whom the promise was made — and the 
primitive constitution of the Church better than they 
did, who were actually employed, as the instruments 
under God, in constituting the Church and handing 
it down — they will do little to satisfy the public mind, 
now alive to this inquiry. But has any one been 
able, has any one pretended, to give such proof ? No 
facts are shown, no circumstances adduced; but 
only insinuations made, suspicions thrown out, against 
the ever-living, ever-speaking truth of Apostolic suc- 
cession. We ask objectors, when this succession failed ? 
And they insinuate, in reply, that it must have failed 
in the infancy of the Church — ^before the Apostolic 
line reached the Island of England. And this they 
insinuate, without the shadow of a fact upon which 
to base the insinuation ; yea, in the face of the most 
ample and convincing facts to the contrary — the facts, 
that the Church at that early period exercised, by re- 
quiring, under heavy penalties, two or three Bishops 
to be present at each consecration, ' the most jealous 

1) << Let a Buhop be ordained hytwotr tkrf Bi$kop» f a presbyter and a 



168 TAB apostles' fbllowship. 

watchfulness over the Apostolical succession of her 
Episci^acy; and further, notwithstanding she was 
pressed and watched on every side by eagle-eyed en- 
emies, her constant appeal against them to her min- 
isterial authority derived by succession from the Aposr 
ties, is in no case questioned. 

Again, we ask the objector where this succession 
failed? And, in reply, we have the insinuation that 
it was broken at the point of its entrance into the 
mother country. This insinuation, too, is made, not 
only without a syllable of proof, but also against proof. 
Let us examine the facts. The best primitive testi- 
mony makes St. Paul, or at least one of the Apostles, 
the founder of Christianity on the British shore, and 
to have left there the Episcopal power.* When, there- 
fore, after the Saxon invasion, St. Augustine attempted 
the revival of the Church in that island, he found 
there seven Bishops,* Here then is one source of the 
Episcopal power from the Apostles. But again, St. 
Augustine derived his authority, as Bishc^, from St. 
John, through Ireneeus and the Bishops of Lyons and 
Arles,^ making in England a second line of Apostolic 

deacon, and the rest of the clergy, by one BiBhop."— 1, 2, Apostolic Canons. 
Bee also Canons SM, 38, and 47. 

1) Beds (ven.) EUst Eccl. Usseri Antiq. Eccl. Brit. Camden's Britan- 
nia. Stillingfleet's Brit. Ch. 

3) See Palmer's Treatise on Ch., vol. i. note p. SOS. 

3) See Note A at tlte end of tliis sermcrn. 

®— ^ 



THB apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 159 

successicm ; and then, the line from St Peter, through 
the Bishqps o£ Italy, constituting in the mother 
country a direct and tmbroken Episcqpal succession 
from three of the Apostles — a succession, which, as 
is manifest from existing records, has come up through 
divers, unobstructed channels, to the period of the Re^ 
formation. But another insinuation is put forth, in the 
question, '* Was not this succession derived through 
the dark and corrupt period of papal domination in 
England V* Suppose it were so ; suppose the stream 
of Apostolic succession flowed through as muddy a 
soil as you have been wont to imagine — ^what then ? 
Did the Jewish corruptions destroy the validity of the 
Jewish Priesthood ? Did the treachery of a Judas 
invalidate his ministerial acts? Is unworthiness in 
the minister considered by any of the Protestant de^ 
nominations, however fearful to himself, as vitiating 
his ministrations to others ? If so ; and if unworthi- 
ness in the Romish hierarchy destroyed their power 
to hand on the ministerial commission to the time of 
the Reformation, then is not the ministerial commis- 
sion from Christ inevitably lost ? For if Romish cor- 
ruption destroyed Episcc^al succession, it must also 
have destroyed Presbi/terial, and all other ministerial 
succession ; yea, and the succession of the Christian 
Church itself. So that if this insinuation be good 
against the existence of Episcopacy in this country, it 

i 1 9 



® 



f 

148 THE apostles' fellowship. 

presbytery, and to the deacons.'' ** Do nothing with- 
out your Bishop.' ' ^ " He that doeth any thing without 
the Bishop, worshippeth the devil."* " Follow the 
Bish<^ cUl of youJ*^ " Your duty is, according to the 
power of God the Father, to concede to him, (your 
Bishop) all homage ; as I am aware the holy presbyters 
^ }>4 « ji^y soul be security for those who submit to 
their Bishop, presbyters, and deacons." Why does 
this holy martyr make a return to the Bishop a mark 
of true repentance? — saying, "The Lord forgiveth 
all when they repent, if in repentance they return to 
Godly unity and to the counsel of the Bishop." Why 
does he make the validity of the sacraments depend 
upon the authority of Bishops ?-r>affirming, that "it 
is not lawful without the Bishop, either to baptize^ or 
celebrate the holy communion; but whatsoever he 
shall approve of, that is pleasing to God, secure and 
well done." "Let that be looked upon as a valid 
Eucharist which is either under the Bishop, or those 
to whom he may commit it."^ Why does he make 
the very existence of the Church depend upon this 

1) Ad Trail, $ 7, 8. 2) $ 9. 3) Ad Smyni. 

4} Ad Magues, $ 3. 

5} Ad Smyra. $ 8. <* Administered withoat their (the Bishops*) anthori- 
ty," says the blessed Athanasius, " it is sacrilege and a pro&ne mockeiy of 
the blood of Christ.'*— gfd IntperaL Const., as quoted by Marshaix, JVbC«f 
on Episcopacy f p. 110. 



^ 






THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 149 

Apostolic order? — saying, that ''without Bishops, 
priests, and deacons, there can be no Church properly 
so called."^ Why does he make adherence to the 
Bishop necessary to the safety of believers, and sepa- 
ration from him the mark of a reprobate mind t — ut- 
tering these words of caution : *' Guard against these 
men, (heretics,) and guarded ye will be, if ye are not 
puffed up, nor separated from Jesus Christ our God, 
and from the Bishop. I put you on your guard, fore- 
seeing the snares of the devil."' " Be not deceived, 
my brethren, — all that are of God and Jesus Christ, 
these are with the Bishop" '* Whosoever followeth 
one that maketh a schism he inheriteth not the king- 
dom of God."* 

Why does St. Irenseus, instructed by the venersr 
ble Polycarp in the very words which, he says, that 
blessed martyr received from the lips of the Apostle 
St. John; why does he appeal to the succession of 
Bishops as a thing manifest even to the heretics and 
schismatics of his time; and, as the instrument of 

1) Ad Trail, $ 7, 8. 2) Ad Pbilad. $ % 

3) For proof that this language ii from the genuine Epiitlet of Ignatiua, 
the vender ehovld haTe reeoune to the unanawerable I^vudidm IgtuMmtm 
of Biahop Peanon. The following remark ii from Dr. Moaheim, one of 
the moat celebrated Lutheran Dirinet, aa quoted by Mr. Marshall in hie 
Notea OB Epiieopaey— ^' The Epiitlea of Ignatiua would never have been 
called in question, had they not emitained what the adTOcates of Episco- 
pacy kacw bow to turn to the advantage of their cause.*' D0 Rthu 



162 THE apostles' fellowship. 

to this doctrina of succession, that it is Perish, and 
that the reformers themselyes gave it up as untenable. 
Let us examine. Did Calvin consider Episcopacy 
untenable when he desired and endeavored to obtain 
it from England ? When, in short, he affirmed in a 
letter to a Bishop of his time — '* He who is made a 
Bishop proceeds from God himself; the office of 
Episcqpacy was established by the authority, and regu- 
lated by the laws of God." ^ Did Luther, when he 
declared, that *^ the authority of Bishops is supported 
by the word of God ?" Did Melancthon, when he 
wrote to Luther, complaining of Zuinglius, that '' at 
one stroke he would abolish ceremonies and have no 
Bishops ?" Did Beza, when he declared that " if 
there are any who reject the whole order of Episco- 
pacy, God forbid that any man of sound mind should 
assent to the madness of such men V* Did Mu*tin 
Bucer, when he said — ^* By the perpetual observation 
of all Churches, even from the Apostles' times, we 
see that it seemed good to the Holy Ghost that there 
should be one having the care of divers Churches and 
the whole ministry, by reason of which the name of 
Bishop was ascribed to him?" 

And now to come to our own Catholic portion of 

1) See DurelPa View of the forei^ reformed Charches, p. 162. For the 
evidence of Calrin't viewi of Epiicopacy, and hit ende&Ton to obtain it 
from England, tee Note C, end of termon. 

® ^ 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 163 

the reformers ; did Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop 
Latimer, with their associates, give up Apostolic suc- 
cession, when, in a statement put forth under their 
hand, 1536, [Henry VIII.,] they affirm that " Christ 
and his Apostles did institute and ordain in the New 
Testament, certain, which, bearing spiritual power, 
authority and commission under Christ, to preach and 
teach the word of God unto His people ; to administer 
the sacraments of God unto them, and by the same, 
to confer and give the Holy Ghost ; to consecrate the 
blessed body of Christ in the sacrament of the Altar ; 
to loose from sin all persons duly penitent for the 
same ; to bind and excommunicate such as be guilty 
in manifest crimes and sins, and will not amend their 
faults ; and to order and consecrate others in the same 
room, order, and office whereunto they be called and 
admitted themselves. And to the intent that the 
Church of Christ should never be destitute of such 
ministers, it was ordained and commanded by the 
Apostles that the same sacrament (of orders) should 
be ministered by the Bishops from time to time?" 
Did the same Archbishop give up this doctrine, 
in the subsequent reign of Edward, when, in a 
sermon, he declared, *' The ministrations of God's 
word, which our Lord Jesus Christ Himself at first 
did institute, was derived from the Apostles unto 
others after them, by imposition of hands, and giving 
^ — __ 9 



164 TBB AP08TLKS* FELLOWSHIP. 

the Hoi J Ghost, from the Apostles^ times te amr days f" 
Did the English fathers who framed oor Ordinali 
1549, [Edward VI.] give op the doctrine of succes- 
sion, when they declare — " It is evident unto oilmen, 
diligently reading Holy Scripture and ancient au- 
thors, that, from the Apostles' time, there have been 
these three orders of ministers in Christ's Church — 
Bishops, Priests, and Deacons ; which officers were 
ever more had in such revered estimation, that no roan 
might presume, or be suffered, to execute any of the 
said functions, except he be called, tried, examined, 
and admitted thereunto, by lawful authority, and hath 
had Episcopal consecration or ordination?" Did the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, with six other Bishops and 
certain presbyters, selected 1558, [Elizabeth,] to 
maintain the Protestant cause against the Papists, 
give it up, when they asserted that ** the Apostles* 
authority is derived upon (ifter ages and conveyed to 
the Bishops, their successors ?" 

You see, beloved brethren, how groundless is the 
charge, that the doctrine of Apostolic succession is a 
corrupt doctrine of Popery ; how complete and strong 
is our proof of its necessity to the efficiency and being 
of "the Holy Catholic Church," and hence how deeply 
each one of us is interested in this " Apostolic fel- 
lowship," as " members of Christ, children of God, 
and inheritors of the Kingdom of Heaven." 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 165 

We see, then, the principle upon which the true 
Charchman acts in strictly adhering to the ministrar 
tions of those, who, by succession, have fellowship 
with the Apostles. Influenced by no paltry consider- 
ations of party strife, or of Pharisaic exclusiveness, 
he seeks to be governed only by the tnll of God ; to 
cleave to the ministers of Apostolic succession, not 
because they are the ministers of his Church, but be- 
cause, in his view, they are the ministers of the Church 
of " the living God" — commissioned, through this 
succession, to convey to him, instruroentally, certain 
benefits, which for his soul's health and salvation he 
is required to have, and which he can perceive no 
other way to obtain. Assured, for example, by God's 
word, that to be saved, he must have the grace of bap- 
tism, and believing, that the commission to baptize 
was given only to the Apostles and to their successors 
to the end of time, he durst not, as he would be 
faithful to God and to his own soul, seek that grace 
from any other source. The same is true in respect 
to the Holy Supper of the Lord.^ To the Church- 

1) The question is often put, ** May I not take the communion with 
thoae who»e ministers are not Episcopally ordained ?'* My uniform reply is, 
Tea, if you eon get it at their tables. It is not a question of fiMowekip-, but 
simply ^faet. We may Imae these persons and take enjoyment in their 
society ; but in order to take the holy supper firom their ministers, they 
must have authority from Christ to give it. The simple question is. Hare 
they this authority? As the> do not OTen profees to have the ftmil of 



^ 



166 THE apostles' fellowship. 

man, therefore, the doctrine of Apostolic succession, 
so far from being a question of theory, or mere fomn, 
is strictly a prcLctical one— involving, in his view, 
the most vital interests— connecting itself more or 
less with every act of the Christian, and every cove- 
nanted blessing of the Gospel of Christ. 

2. And have we not a rights as Churchmen, to 
follow, in this matter, the dictates of our own con- 
science? Shall we be denounced and derided, in 
this land of freedom, and by persons boasting of their 
distinguished liberality, for our steadfast adherence 
to the ministry of Apostolic succession, when we be- 
lieve in our hearts, that God requires it of us 1 
Should we not rather, holding as we do, the necessity 
of this succession, subject ourselves to the just re- 
proach of all honest men for cowardly inconsistency, 
were we to shrink from its maintenance, either in our 
teaching, or our action? Suppose, as the charge is, 
that the inculcation of this doctrine, on our part, im- 
plies the disobedience of others, or their destitution of 
the blessings which we believe to be inseparable from 
the doctrine. What then? Is the believer in Christian- 

anthority which we hold to be necenary to constitute a valid ■acrament — 
or the sacrament which our Lord commands us to receive— it would cer- 
tainly be worse than useless for us to go through the mere form of commu- 
nicating with them. In regard to this, the Apostolic admonition may not 
be wholly inappropriote — ** He that doubUiUi is damned if he eat, because 
he eateth not of ftith» fcnr whatsoever is not of faith is sin." .£om. ziv. 93. 

^ ^ 



Q ( 

TAB apostles' fbllowsup. 167 

ity to be charged with depriving the infidel of salvar 
tion, because he maintains, that to be saved, a man 
must have faith in Christ 1 Is the Presbyterian to be 
lodged upon as excluding the Quaker firom the bless- 
ings of the visible covenant, because he makes that 
baptism, which the Quaker rejects, the door of admis- 
sion to these blessings ? Or were the worshippers 
who taught that God had fixed His House of Prayer 
upon Mount Sion, guilty of excluding those of their 
brethren firom this house, who separated firom them, 
and worshipped on Mount Gerizim? And shall 
we, who hold to a divinely constituted Church — to an 
Apostolic ministry — to sacraments and ordinances 
established by Christ, as the channels of His grace 
and presence to our souls, be regarded as depriving 
those of these blessings, who have turned away fi'om 
them, refuse to acknowledge them, and content them- 
selves with a Church of mere human origin, a minis- 
try of mere human appointment, and sacraments 
merely outward and formal in their character ? Can 
we, in short, be said to unchurch them, when we ad- 
mit that they have all the Church which they claim 
to have, and only call their attention to a Church of 
a higher character, of God's building, which they 
acknowledge they have not ? Is it uncharitable in 
us, while we grant them to be in possession of all 
which they profess to have, to entreat them to accept 



168 THE apostles' fellowship. 

of more, which we believe God has provided for them 
as well as ourselves ? 

3. And here we are prepared to meet those who 
charge us with relying too implicitly upon the oat- 
ward form. If this form, as we have proved, be pre- 
scribed by Infinite Wisdom, as the means for our at* 
taining *' the inward, spiritual grace," what else can we 
do, but rely upon it ? We know our own ignorance 
^-our extreme liability to stray from the path of life 
— and hence the great danger of employing for our 
salvation any means not provided in the Gospel; 
spiritual succor we must have — spiritual succor is 
offered us, through certain revealed channels ; why 
shall we not adhere to these channels 1 — '* steadfastly 
continue in the Apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and 
in breaking of bread, and in prayers ?" 

4. But it is said. Churchmen, who claim to have 
these high privileges, have no more religion than 
others. It may be so ; and if it be, we can only say, 
in a spirit of anxious self-abasement, an awful account 
of abused mercies is awaiting our appearance at the 
judgment seat of Christ. But this cannot alter the 
truth of God ; nor take aught from the value or ne- 
cessity of His institutions. These rest upon His au- 
thority ; and afford the only visible means of our re- 
turn to His favor and fellowship, no matter what may 
be the measure of the faithfulness of those who enjoy 



THi apostles' fellowship. 160 

them. Bat before passing judgment upon such, it 
may be well to consider, that he only is truly religious, 
who submits to the requirements of the Christian 
religion. A man may be heated, and talkative, and 
bustling, and boastful, without being obedient to God. 
It was so with the Pharisees. They compassed sea and 
laad*-4nade an ostentatious display of their religion — 
made long prayers — " trusted in themselves that they 
were righteous, and despised others ;" .and yet our 
"Lord said concerning them, " Except your righteous- 
ness exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Phar- 
isees, ye cannot enter into the Kingdom of Heaven." 
5. Finally, we come to the true test of a religious 
system, in reference to its effects upon men ; a test, 
not consisting in the numbers or zeal of those which 
are brought to its standard — for by such a test Ma- 
hometans and Mormons might establish their claim to 
truth — but a test consisting in the power of the sys- 
tem, to subject its members, in a spirit of humble, 
self-sacrificing obedfence, to the requirements and in- 
timations of God's revealed will. In this view of it, 
it may be useful to consult the history of obedience 
to God. Let us then cast our eye over the Church 
of Christ from the beginning ; and let us make the 
inquiry, and let us have the humility to make it hon- 
estly ; Who in their lives have shown the most real, 
Goi^el spirituality, brought forth most abundantly 



170 THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 

the true, scriptural fruits of the Spirit? They who, in 
early times, implicitly relied upon God's institution ; 
or such as, in our day of innovation, decry and depart 
from it ? They, who Men, in childlike simplicity and 
humbleness of mind, received the word as delivered 
to them from the Apostles through the holy Church, 
and were ready to sacrifice all, even unto their lives, 
for its sake ; or they, who now ** neglect to hear the 
Church," arrogantly reject her counsels — presump- 
tuously set aside her catholic teaching, and refuse to 
receive aught by authority, even of Almighty GrOD, 
except, as it is first subjected to the trial of their own 
superior wisdom, and pronounced true and reasona- 
ble and comprehensible by their own infallible judg- 
ment? They, who then, reverently and joyfully, 
through evil as well as good report, maintained comr 
munion with the Apostolic ministry, and thus with 
one another, were indeed linked together by the 
ties of a most heavenly charity — who breathed 
only thoughts of love, and spake only words of broth- 
erly kindness — who administered of their substance 
to others, as each had need — and lived only for the 
things of Christ — nailing their affections to His 
cross— offering all they possessed at His altar, or 
holding it only at the disposal of His Church— count- 
ing it the greatest gain to devote it. to the advance 
ment of his kingdom and glory ; or they who, now, 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 171 

seem to pride themselves upon their dissent from 
Apostolic authority and practice — upon their inde- 
pendence in " i^eaking evil of dignities " — upon their 
freedom from the restraints of godly discipline ; who 
count it a small thing to break the law of love — to 
indulge bitterness of spirit towards a brother — 
bitterness of language, unkindness of deportment ; 
who ** seek their own and not the things which are 
Jesus Christ's;" seek for their sons the places of 
worldly honor and profit, while the *' poor have not 
the Gospel preached to them," and the harvest of 
their compassionate Lord is not gathered in ; who re- 
gard their substance as their own — ^think not that 
they are stewards, and say in their hearts and giv- 
ings, " who is Lord over us ?" yea, whose souls are 
absorbed in worldly gain, whose thousands are held 
with a niggard hand, and whose mites doled out with 
a grudging spirit, while the needy groan under des- 
titution — missionaries pine in want, or are forced 
from their perishing docks from lack of bread, and 
the Church of Jesus — the poor man's friend, the 
rich man's hope — is compelled to become a beggar — 
an unwelcome and often unheeded beggar, at the rich 
man's gate ? Good God ! Are these the fruits of Thy 
blessed Spirit — ^these the proofs that men now have 
the mind of Thy Christ ? Forgive the presumption of 



m THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 

our empty claim ! O forgive the blindness of thy 
erring people ! 

Did they show themselves formalists — destitute 
of the life of God in the soul — who in the early time 
so prized the Saviour's presence, so panted for His 
near fellowship in the worship of His house and at 
the altar of His love, as to press through every inter- 
posing obstacle of the world to dcnly, public prayer, 
and at least weekly communion in the holy Supper ; 
impelled by a feeling expressed by an inspired wor- 
shipper of old ; *' one day in thy courts is better than a 
thousand — my soul hath a desire and a longing to en- 
ter into the courts of the Lord ; my heart and my flesh 
rejoice in the living God V* Or do they, who now 
spend their breath in decrying the benefits and low- 
ering to their carnal comprehension the deep mean- 
ing of the blessed sacrament — who discourage its 
frequent celebration, or employ their thoughts in 
self-apologies for its neglect; and actually begrudge 
to the Author of their being and their Christian hope, 
an hour daily in His temple — feeling in their hearts 
as the old exemplars in avarice, the Jews, felt, that 
the lame and the blind are good enough for heaven ; 
and that it is " a vain and wearisome thing to serve 
God ?" 

Aye, and has God, in His word, showed Himself 
especially pleased with those who are careless of His 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 173 

visible institutions; who call them forms, and take 
the liberty of altering or disregarding them ? Did He 
show respect to the offering of the presumptuous Cain, 
who brought of the fruits of the ground, instead of .the 
q>pointed firstling of the flock? Did He send heal* 
ing to the leprous Naaman, while, in pride and anger, 
the man turned from the appointed waters of Jordan 
to his own boasted rivers of Damascus? Did He 
show favor to Corah and his company, when they rose 
up against His appointed ministers — charging them 
with an assumption of power, and asserting the equal 
sacredness and authority of the whole congregation ? 
Did He bless King Saul when he thrust himself, un- 
bidden and unconsecrated, into the priest's ofiice ? 
Did He bless Israel, when they departed from Mount 
Zion, the appointed seat of His glory, and built their 
altars upon the high places of Baal? Did He bless 
them, give them tokens of His love, when, com- 
manded to offer the umblemished firstlings of their 
beasts, they brought to His altar the lame and the 
blind for sacrifice ? 

Beloved brethren, take the admonition. Rest as- 
sured, your wisdom and safety consist in strict and 
faithful adherence to what God has appointed — in 
steady though meek resistance to what man has in- 
vented. Your part in this day of *' rebuke and blas- 
phemy," is not to join in the senseless cry of treach- 



174 THE APOSTLBS' FELLOWSHIP. 

ery in the Church, or of danger to her stability. She 
is as safe as the throne of God. The spirits from be- 
low may taunt her in her trial, and predict her down- 
fall ; but " the gates of hell will not prevail against 
her." *' The Lord hath founded Zion, and the poor 
of His people may trust in it !'' Your part is not to 
quail, or falter, or give heed to the clamor of the ene- 
my ; but it is to " put on the whole armor of God," 
and '' stand fast, with one heart and one mind," bro- 
ther with brother, hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder, 
" striving together for the Taith of the Gospel." Your 
part \& not loud talking, and tattling, and " angry re- 
viling ;" but it is silence and prayer, and reverence and 
adoration of God, who in judgment is passing through 
our host. It is not, being " busy-bodies in other men's 
matters ;" but, in being ** keepers at home," and set- 
ting your own house well in order. Not in recount- 
ing your neighbor's faults ; but in humble and peni- 
tent acknowledgement of God's visitation upon his 
Church, for your own sins. Not in detecting heresy 
in the opinions of your brother ; but in taking care 
that you understand and are well-grounded in your 
own. Not in charging apostacy from the Church upon 
him ; but in anxiously inquiring, whether, while your 
eye has been fixed upon his movements, you have not 
been insensibly drifting away, under the pressure of 
dissent, from the true Catholic Faith, to which yoa 



-9 



a 

THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 175 

are so solemnly pledged at holy baptism — '' the faith 
once for all delivered to the saints.'' Your part is to 
retire from the noise and strife of the outer world 
into your own closets and hearts — to study yourselves 
in the light of your Bible and your Catechism' — in- 
crease your knowledge, and strengthen your faith in 
your creeds — keep, in the fear of God, the law of the 
ten commandments — rejoice in the undeserved pres- 
ence of Christ at His altar — and " pray always — pray 
without ceasing." It is your part, in short, to " con- 
tinue steadfastly in the Apostles' doctrine and fellow- 
ship, and in breaking of bread and in prayers." '* And 
the very God of peace sanctify you wholly ; and I pray 
God, your whole spirit, and soul, and body, be pre- 
served blameless unto the coming of our Loed Jesus 
Cheist." Amen. 



1) Ths Oatbchism. — ^It is a pity that people donH look at their Cate- 
ehism ■ometimes when they are grown op ; for it it fall aa good for men and 
women aa it is for children ; nay, better : for though the anawen contained 
in it are intended for children to repeat, yet the duties enjoined in it are 
intended for men and women to put in practice. It is, if I may so speak, 
the very grammar of Christianity, and of our Church ; and they who under- 
■tand every part of their Catechism thoroughly, will not be ignorant of any 
thing which a plain Christian need to know. — Haivhah Mobs. 



^- 



176 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. % 

Nora A, p. 158. 



Below is the line of sacceMion ftt»ni St. John, throosh AofOftine, 
to Bisbop White, taken fiom moit authentic reootdi, and rabnitted to tiM 
teet of the moet searching criticism) in the belief that every attempt te 
prove it false will be utterly vain. 



ST. JOHN.' 
1. Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna. 

BisBOPs or LroMS. 
1. Pothinos. 
fi. IrentBos. 

3. Zacharias. 

4. Elias. 

5. Faustinas. 

6. Verus. 

7. Julius. 

8. Ptolemy. 

9. Vocius. 

10. Maximus. 

11. Tetradus. 
13. Verissimus. 

13. Justus. 

14. Albinus. 

15. Martin. 

16. Antiochus. 

17. Elpidius. 

18. Sicarius. 

19. Eueherius, I. 
SO. Patiens. 

81. LupicinoK 
VSL Rusticus. 
23. Stephanus. 
S24. Viventiolus. 

25. Eucheriusi IL 

26. Lupus. 

27. Liconlius. 

28. Saeerdos. 



529. Nicetus. 
30. Priscns. 
31 .ATRsaivi. 



A.D.fl89. 



CANTERBURY. 
33. A. D. 596. Aoodstirs, Hit- 
sionary to the Anglo Saxona, 
3Jd was consecrated by Viboi* 
flom Lius, 24th Bishop of Aries, 
St. assisted by ^thsbius, 31st 
John. Bishop of Lyons. 

A. D. 605 



34. Lawrence, 

35. Mellitus, . 

36. Justus, 

37. Honorius . 

38. Adeodatus, . 

39. Theodore, 

40. Brithwald, . 

41. Tatwine, . 
43. Nothelm, 

43. Cuthbert, . 

44. Bregwin, 

45. Lambert, . 

46. .iEthehred, I. 

47. Wulfred, . 

48. Theogild or FeogiM, 
consecrated June 5th, and 
died September 3d. 

49. Ceolnoth, Sept., 

50. iEthelred, n. . 

51. Phlegmnnd, . 



(( 

(C 
M 
C( 
(( 
C( 
CI 

u 
tl 
it 

4( 
(( 
M 



(( 



<( 



<C 



619 
634 
634 
654 



693 
731 
735 
749 
759 
763 
783 
803 
830 



830 
871 
891 



»• 



® 



■9 



THE APOSTLBS' FBLLOWSBIP. 177 






SL Atheln, «r Adelni) . 
53. Wolfelm, 
51 Odo Sevenis, 
55ii Ihmstan, 
56i ^thelgar, 

57. SiricoB, . 

58. Aluficiu, or Alfricaf, 

59. Eipbege, . . 

60. Living, or LeoniDg, or 

Elkakan, 

61. Agelnoih, or ^tfaelnot, 

62. Edsio, or Elsin . 

63. Bobert Cremeticeniif, 

64. Stigajidy • 
65b LanfranCj « 

66. AnMlm, 

67. Sodalph, . 

65. William Corbell, . 

69. Theobold, . 

70. Thomas a Beckett, 

71. Richard, . 
79L Baldwin Fordeoaii, 

73. Reginald Fitz-Joceline, 

74. Hubert Walten, 

75. Stephen Langton, . 

76. Richard Wethersfield, 

77. Edmund, 

78. Boniface, . . . 

79. Robert Kilwarby, 

80. Johu Peckham, . 

81. Robert Winchelsey, 
83. Walter Reynold, 

83. Simon Mepham, . 

84. John Stratford, . 

85. Thomas Bradwardine, 

86. Simon Iitlip, • 

87. Simon Tjangbam, . 

88. Wm. Wittlesey, 



A. D. USsJ3 


89. SioKMi Sodbnry, . 


A.D. 1375 


. " 098 


90. William Coartnay, , 


*« 1381 


" 941 


91. Thomaa Arandel, 


. « 1306 


. ** 950 


99. Henry Chichely, 


♦* 1414 


« 088 


93. John SufTord, 


. "1443 


. * 089 


04. John Kemp, 


*' 1453 


«♦ 996 


05. Thomas Bourcher, 


. "1454 


« 1005 


06. John Morton, 


'( 1486 




07. Henry Dean, 


. »* 1501 


«* 1013 


08. William Wareham, . 


•♦ 1503 


t, « 1020 


00. Thomas Cbahmxb, 


. " 1533 


. « 1038 


100. Reginald Pole, 


« 1555 


«» 1050 


101. Matthew Parker, 


. " 1559 


. " 1053 


102. Edmund Grindall, Deo. « 1573 


« 1070 


103. John Whitgift, . 


. •♦ 1583 


. " 1093 


104. Richard Bancroft, . 


" 1604 


" 1114 


105. George Abbott, . 


. «* 1611 


. « 1129 


106. WiUiam Laud, 


« 1633 


*« 1138 


107. William Juxon, ■ 


. " 1660 


. ♦♦ 1169 


108. Gilbert Sheldon, . 


«« 1663 


" 1174 


109. William Sancroft, 


. *« 1677 


. " 1184 


110. John Tillotaon, 


«* 1691 


, " 1101 


111. Thomas Tennison, 


. « 1694 


. " 1103 


112. WUUam Wake, . 


«« 1715 


. " 1207 


1J3. John Potter, 


. « 1737 


*' 1229 


114 Thomas Seeker, 


*' 1738 


. " 1234 


iU. Thomas Herring, 


. ** 1747 


« 1245 


116. Matthew Hutton, . 


*« 1757 


. " 1272 


117. Frederick Comwallia 


1, : « 1768 


« 1278 


118. John Moore, 


. *» 1783 


. ** 1204 


110. From St John, is 


William 


" 1313 


Whitk, of Pennsylvania, con- 


. ** 1328 


secrated February 4th, 1787, by 


" 1333 


John Moore, Archbishop of Can- 


" 1348 


terbury, assisted by 


the Arch 


« 1349 


bishop of York, the 


Bishop of 


. « 1366 


Bath and Wells, and 


the Bishop 


" 1368 


of Peterborough. 





s 



!?§ 



THB apostles' FELLOWSHIP. * 

Note B, p. 161. 
Dr. Ungard 9% PrvUsUmt Ordmatums. 

Mm. Editob, — In your last number, a correspondent, under the aigna- 
ture of T. H., baa called on me to abow why I hare aaaerted, (Hist. ▼. 155, 
note H.) that Archbishop Parker was consecrated on the 17th of December, 
1559. Though I despair of satisfying the incredulity of one who cati doubt, 
after he has examined the documents to which I have referred, yet I owe it 
to myself to prove to your readers the truth of my statement, and the utter 
futility of any objection which can be brought against it. 

The matter in dispute is, whether Parker received, or did not receive 
consecration on the 16th of December j but the following facts are, and must 
be, admitted on both sides : 1st. That the Clueen having given the royal 
assent to the election of Parker, by the Dean and the chapter of Canterbury, 
sentk on September 9, a mandate to six prelates to confirm and consecrate 
thJArcbbishop-elect, and that they demurred, excusing, as would appear 
from wh^t followed, their disobedience by formal exceptions on points of 
law. 2d. Th8t,'%>n the 6th of December, she issued a second commission 
to sevei^ Bbhops, ordering them, or any four of them, to perform that office, 
with the addition of Meanatory clause, in which she supplied, by her su- 
preme authority, all legal or ecclesiastical defects on account of the urgency 
of the time, and the necessity of the thing ; " temporis ratione et rerum 
neceHsitate id postulante ;" words which prove how much the doeeo had 
this consecration at heart ; and certainly not without reason, for at that 
time, with the exception of Landaff, there was not a diocese provided with 
a Bishop, nor, as the law then stood, could any such provision be made with- 
out a consecrated Archbishop, to confirm and consecrate the Bishop elect. 
3d. That four out of the seven Bishops, named in the connmission, (they had 
been deprived or disgraced under Clueen Mary, but had now come forward 
to ofier their services, and solicit preferment in the new Church,) having 
obtained a favorable opinion from six counsel learned in the law, undertook 
to execute the commission, and confirmed Parker's election on the 9th of 
December. 

Now, these facts being indisputable, what, I ask, should prevent the 
consecration from taking place? The Clueen required it; Parker, as ap- 
pears from his subsequent conduct, had do objection to the ceremony, and 



^. 



9- ■ ® 

THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 179 

the eommiuioaen were ready to perform it, or rather under an obligation 
to do so ; for by the SiSth of Henry VIIL, rerived in the last Parliament, 
they were compelled, under the penalty of prvmonire, to proceed to the 
consecration within twenty days after the date of the commission. Most 
certainly all these preliminary facts lead to the presumption that the con- 
secration did actually take place about the time assigned to it, the 17th of 
December, a day fiilling within the limits I have just mentioned. 

In the next place, I must solicit the attention of your readers to certain 
indisputable fiicts, subsequent to that period. These are— 1st. That on the 
18th (and the date is remarkable) the QAeen sent to Paiker no fewer than 
six writs, addressed to him, under the new style of Matthew, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and primate and metropolitan of all England, and directing 
him to proceed to the confirmation and consecration of six Bishops elect for 
six different sees. This was the first time, during the six months which 
had elapsed since his election, that any such writ had been directed to him. 
What, then, could have happened, jost before the 18th, to entitle him to 
this new style, and to enable him to confirm and consecrate Bishops, which 
he could not do befbre ? The obvious answer is, that he himself had been 
oonsecrated on the 17th. 9d. That on the 21st, be consecrated four new 
Bishops, on the 31st of January, five others, two more on the Sid, and two 
on the 94th of March. Can we suppose that so much importance would be 
attached to consecration given by him, if he had received no consecratiiHi 
himself? or, that the new Church would have been left so long without 
Bishops at all, if it had not been thought necessary that he, who was by 
law to consecrate the others, should previously receive that rite ? 3d. That 
afterward, at the same time with the new prelates, he obtained the resto- 
ration of his temporalities, a restoration which was never made till after 
consecration. 4th. That he not only presided at the convocation, but sat 
in successive parliaments, which privilege was never allowed to any but 
consecrated Bishops. In my judgment, the comparison of these facts, with 
those that preceded the 17th of December, forms so strong a case, that I 
should not hesitate to pronounce in favor of the consecration, if even all 
direct and positive evidence respecting it had perished. 

But there exists such evidence in abundance. That Parker was conse- 
crated on the 17th of December, is asserted, 1st, by Camden, (i. 49,) 2d, by 
Goodwin, (De Pras, p. 219,) 3d, by the Archbishop himself, in his work, 
De Antiquitate Britannics Ecclesiae, published in 1572, three years before 

® — ® 



(^— — ® 

180 TBS apostles' fellowship. 






Uf death, or if that book bo denied to be hiii in liis diary, in which ocean 
the following entry in hie own hand, *' 17th Dec. Ann, 1559, consecratui 
nun in Arshiepiecopom Cantnarienaem Hue ! Hue ! Domine Deui, in qu» 
tempora Mrratti me 1" (Strype** Parker, App. 15.) And 4th, by the 
Arehiepifloopal Register, a record which details the whole proceeding, 
with the names of the Bishops, of their chaplains, and of the official wit- 
nesses. In truth, it descends to so many minute particulars, that 1 think, 
Mr. Editor, it must be the model after which are c<Hiq>osed the descriptions 
of consecrations, ordinationB, and dedications, which we have the pleasure 
of perusing in your pages. In one respect only must it yield the superiority 
to them. It names not either the organist or the singers. 

Now to this mass of evidence, direct, and indirect, what does your cor- 
respondent oppose f That Harding and Stapleton, and the more ancient 
Catholic controvertists, denied that Parker was a Bishop. That is, indeed, 
true } but I alwajrs understood that their objections (which is certainly the 
case, with respect to the two passages quoted in your last number,) referred 
to the validity, not to the fitct of his crasecration; and if Dr. Milner has 
chanced to assert the contrary, I fear that he wrote it hastily, and without 
consideration. I am not aware of any open denial of the fiust, till about 
fifty years afterward, when the tale of the fo(^ry suppose to have been 
played on the Nag's Head, was first published. In refutation of that story, 
Protestant writers appealed to the Register ; their opponents disputed its 
authority ; and the consequence was, that in 1614, Archbbhop Abbot inr 
vited Colleton, the Archpriest, with two or three other Catholic mission- 
aries, to Lambeth, and submitted the register to their inspection, in pres- 
ence of six of his own Episcopal colleagues. The details may be seen in 
Dodd, ii. 377, or in Godwin, p. 319. 

Your correspondent assures us that the register contains ** so many in- 
accuracies and points at variance with the history of the times, as mani- 
festly prove it a forgery." Were it so, there still remains sufficient evi- 
dence of the fact. But what induces T. H. to make this assertion ? Has 
he examined into all the circumstances of the case ? Or does he only take 
for granted the validity of the several objections which Dodd, without ex- 
pressing any opinion of his own, has collected from different cootrovertiats ? 
However that may be, I have no hesitation in saying, that all those objec- 
tions are founded on misconception or ignorance ; that the register agrees 
in every particular with what we know o£ the history of the times ; and 



^ — ® 



\l 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 181 

that there ezisti not the temblance of a reason for pronouncing it a forgery. 

Your readers will observe that in this communication I hare confined 
myself to the fact of Parker's consecration ; whether it was valid or invalid, 
according to the Catholic doctrine, is a theological qoestiou, with which, as 
a mere writer of history, t had no concern. 

Cathoiie Diary. JoRir Linoabd. 



Note C, p. 162. 

The reader will not here need a lengthened detail of the viewa of 
Calvin, Beza, Melancthon and their coadjutors, and this has just been 
placed before the public in Marshazx*s Atotes on Epiteopaqf, p. 183, Itc, 
by D Appleton & Co., New York ; a book well calculated to meet the 
necessities of the time. In reference to the views of Calvin, the Author 
would beg leave to submit, in confirmation of what he says of them in thn 
sermon, the substance of a letter which he had occasicm to write in defence 
t>f similar remarks in 1841. 

My first position was that ** Calvin favored Episcopacy.'* In support oi 
it, I adduced Calvin's own words. And now, that the people may see that 
I war guilty of no unfairness, I here repeat what he sajs on the point. 

1. In his commentary upon 1 Tim. iv. 14, a passage so much relied apon 
by Presbyterians — be gives an interpretation which makei it perfectly con- 
sistent with the Episcopal character of Timothy. 

S. In his commentary upon a text in the Epistle to Titus, he uses this 
language—*' We learnt also, from this place, that there was not then such 
an equdlihf among the ministers of the Church, but that some mm had the 
pre-eminence in authority and counsel." 

3. In his commentary on Gal. ii. 9, he represents it as ** highly pnhohle 
that St. James was prtfeet of the Church of Jerusalem.'* Now a prefect is 
a chief and permanent ruler of others. 

4. In a letter to an old flriend, who had become a Bishop in the Church 
of Rome, (See Durell's view of the Foreign Reformed Churches, p. 169,) 
Cahrin expressly recognizes Episcopacy as of divine institution. His words 
are j — ** Episcopatus ipse a Deo profectus est Episcopi munns Dei suthori- 
tate constitutnm est et legibos definitum j*'— ** He who is made a Bidiop 



(S) 



182 TUB AP08TLB8' FELLOWSHIP. 

proceeds from God himselC The office of Episcopacy was established by 
the aatbority, and regulated by the laws of €rod." 

5. Finally, in hit work de neeessUaU RtfomuKHdarum Eedenarum^ Calvin 
holds this remarkable langaage : — " If they will give us such an Hierarchy, 
in which the Bishops have such a pre-eminence Ss that they do not refuse 
to be subject unto Christ, &c. Itc, then I will confess that they are 
worthy of all ahathamas, if any such shall be found, who will not rever- 
ence it, and submit themselves to ' it with the utmost obedience." (See 
JoAiriris Calviivi traeiatM* iheologiea omnea, in unitm volitmen eertis dassi- 
bus eoHfesUj Ifc, p. 69.) The length of this and other passages has pre- 
vented my giving the original. The translation, however, I believe will be 
found faithful. 

The above testimony, from Calvin*s own pen, I shall not hesitate to 
consider sufficient, with all candid persons, to justify my declaration, that 
Calvin was favorable to Episcopacy. 

My second position was, that he endeavored to obtain Episcopacy 
from the English Church. My reasons are as follows : 

1. Calvin desired, as Is manifest, to retain the Episcopal regimen in his 
system of Church Government. See his explicit language in the Confession 
of Faith, which he composed in the name of the French Churches. In the 
articles drawn up by the delegates of whom Calvin was one, to the Confisr- 
ence at Worms, by order of Charles V., are the following word»— ^* Our 
learned men have expressly yielded ordination to Bishops." [See Arti- 
cles.] Calvin severely censures the clergy of Collen, for endeavoring to put 
their head Bishop out of his place, inasmuch as he had declared in favor of 
reformation. [Vide Calv. EpisL, page 517.] Writing to Ithavios, a Polo- 
nian Bishop, whom he styles illustrious and reverend Lord Bishop, so far 
from advising him to lay aside his Episcopacy, he exhorts him to consider 
what place he holdeth, and what burden is imposed upon him. [Vide Jo- 
HAirirxs Calviivus iUustri et rmerendo Domino Jacoho ItJumw Episeopo E^nsLf 
page 287.] In his Epistle to the King of Poland, Calvin expresses his ap« 
probation of all the degrees of the Hierarchy of the Ancient Church ; and 
he seems to advise the Kiug to introduce the system into his own Domin- 
ions. [Vide Calv. Sereniaa. Regi, Polon,] 

3. Having by untoward circumstances been unable to retain in the Genevan . 
System the Episcopal regimen, Calvin made, as will appear from the follow* 
ing fact, an actual attempt, atone period, to introduce the Episcopacy from 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 183 

£ii|rland. This fact is related by the excellent an accurate hiatorian Strype ; 
a fact that has remained unqueationed for more than two centuries. ** How 
Calvin stood affected in the said point of Episcopacy, and how readily and 
gladly he and other heads of the Reformed Churches would have received 
it, is evident enough from hia writings and Epiatles." [See Stbtps*s 
Uft cf Bishop Parker, pp. 69, 70.] <* They (the foreign Protestanto) took 
such great joy and satisfaction in this King (Edward VI.) and his establish- 
ment of Religion, that Bullinger, and Calvin, and others, in a letter to him 
offered to make him their Defender, and to have Bishops in their Churches, 
as there were in England ; with a tender of their service to assist and unite 
together." [See Strtpk's Memorials of Oanmer, page 270.] This scheme 
seems to have been defeated by a forgery of the Papists. The last letter of 
Calvin on the subject was intercepted by Bonner and Gardner, two Romish 
Bishops, who returned such an ungracious answer as offended Calvin and 
led him to give up the project. This is affirmed in a paper in the hand- 
writing of Archbishop Abbot, who was a friend to Calvin, and was apolo- 
gizing for him in this very document \ which was found in the archives of 
Lambeth. The subjoined is the paper as published by Strype ; [X^ <if 
Parker^ page 70.] " Perusing," says the Archbishop, ** some papers of 
our predecessor, Matthew Parker, we find that John Calvin and others of the 
Protestant Church of Geneva and elsewhere, would have had Epbcopacy, 
if permitted. And whereas John Calvin had sent a letter in King Edward 
VI.'s reign, to confer with the Clergy of England about some things to this 
effect, (that is getting the Episcc^acy,) two Popish Bishops, viz. Bonner and 
Gkirdner, intercepted the same ; whereby Calvin's overture perished. And 
he received an answer, as if it had been from the Reformed divines, where- 
in they checked him and slighted his proposals. From which time John 
Calvin and the EnsUsh Church were at variance in several points which 
otherwise, tnrough God's mercy, had been qualified if those papers of his 
proposals had been discovered unto the Queen's majesty during John Cal- 
vin's life. But being not discovered until, or about the sixth year of her 
Majesty's reign. Her Majesty much lamented they were not found sooner ; 
which she expressed before her council at the same time in the presence of 
her great friends. Sir Henry Sidney and Sir Wm. Cecil." 

From all this, it appears that Calvin was quite disposed to reform the 
Chare on the ground of Episcopacy — ^that he deliberately offered to do so— 
and that he finally proceeded on a different system from the difficulty ,'at he 

^ ^-« 



, % 

\ 

184 ram apostles' fellowship. 



been, in hie Tiew, repnlied in hi» supplication to Eog- 
land--of proenrinf Bialiops withont yieldinf to tbe enfMrmoas exaetions of 
the Choreli of Rome ;— «od lience, it appeara, that I had abondant reeBon 
ibr both parte of tlie dechiration— that John Calviu wae fiiToral^n to Epi«- 
c^iaeyf and tiutt he eodeaTored to obtain it firomtlie English Church. 

I camMi conelode my present remarks^ howerer, without foinishiof a 
few passafes fiom the admirers of Cahin, to show tliai I hare not miBnn- 
derstood the eitations firom his works aboTe. Mods. Daille, a ftiend and 
defender of Calrin, writes thvs ezplicitiy :— " Cahrin himself honored all 
Bishops Ihat were not subjects <^ the Pope, Ate, such as were the pre- 
lates of England. We confess that the foundation 9€ their charge is good 
and lawftil, established by the Apestles aec<»ding to the ccmunand of 
Christ." [BiifOHAM's FVmuk Chireh*s Jfytlogfj f'e.} Mens. De Le Angle, 
another of Calrin's foUowere— in a ktter addressed to the Bishop of Lon- 
don, writes thns — ** CaWin, in his treatise of the necessity of a reforma- 
tion, makes no difficulty to say, that if there should be any so unreasonable 
as to refese the communion of a Church that was pore in its worship and 
derotioo, and not to submit himself with respect to its Goy^mment, under 
pretenee that it had retained an I^iecopacy <iaafified as yours is ; there 
would be no censure or rigor (^discipline that ought not to be exercised i^ 
on them." [Snixiivon.nBT*s UnreasmuMeneas tf Stpmratien,'] Jacobus 
Lectins, a Senator of 43eneya, and pubHe reader in the UniTersity, writes, 
in a book dedicated to the Senate, Ate, as follows : — ^ We maintain that 
those are true and htwfU Bishops whom St. Pan) describes m his Epistles 
to Timothy and Titus, and we do not deny, but that there were such for- 
merly in that great kingdom of Great Britain, and at this very day, there 
are such Bishops there^ Neitlier was there any of our dirines, I think, 
who ever denied it to be a most ancient custom in the Church, from the 
very times of the Apostles ; to wit, that one should have the chief care of 
the Church, sitting, as it were, at the hefan of the sacred ship. And they 
profess, by their public writings, that it was mad-like to think meanly of the 
order of orthodox Bishops, to whom therefore our men, and amongst them, 
Calvin, Bucer, Beza, and others, have deferred all manner of honor and af- 
fection." [See DnaBix*B Fieio, ^'c, pp. 169, 170.] 

The good Bishop Hall, in his Divine Right of Episc<^cy, part 1, see. 3, 
meditating upon Calvin's views as contrasted with the Presbyterian har- 
tred of Episcopacy in his own day, breaks 0|it in the foUowing strain ^— 



9 



r 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 



185 



" Ym liear how jadiciona and moderate CaWio*i opinion waa then ; and 
kad ha baan in yoor late pretended assembly at Glasgow, or this of Edin- 
boiigh, (yon see) what vote he would have given. How happy were it for 
yoor Cha||bes if all among yoif, who so much honor his name, would as 
readily submit to his judgment. Sure I am, bad it been so with yon, you 
would have been as far from defying Episcopacy in holy professors, as you 
are now from truth and peace.** 



As strong efforts are now made tu inculcate the idea, that the present 
views of dissenters^-especially the Methodist — iu regard to Episcopacy or 
JipostoUe succession, are the same with those of the distinguished founder 
of this latter sect, I shall need no apology for calling the attention of my 
readers to the following presentation of the views of Mr. Wesley, as also of 
Dr. Adam Clarke, made by a true and able hand : — 

"The Rev. John Weslet, the distinguished Father of Methodism, 
had no idea of becoming the founder of a numerous and powerful sect, 
which would assume, as it has done in this country, the name of the 
Metho^t Episcopal Church. For, although less consistent and decided in 
his Church principles than his brother Charles, it was, (as the inscription 
on his tombstone declares,) the avowed purpose of * his life and writings, 
to revive, enforce, and defend the pwe apostolical doctrines anid praetiees qf 
the Primitive Oivrck.* In advocating the doctrines and discipline of the 
Church of England, in opposition to the corruptions of the Church of Rome, 
he does it upon the sound principle contained in the following sentence : 
' Scripture and indubitable antiquity are the authority we appeal to ; 
thither we refer our cause ; and can heartily conclude with that of Vincen- 
tiuB Lirens, TTiat it is to be held, which hath been believed every wherSj 
oltDoys, by a£L? * 

\^ Reasoning upon this sound principle, we do not wonder at his declara- 
tion, * We account Ordination to be of D\xi-M tnstjttttton, and CAot bfyil a 
•atxsisUrial commission is conveyed ;'t nor to hear him answer when asked 
by what authority he preached the Gospel ? * By the authority of Jesus 
Christ, eormeyed to me by the (now) Archbishop of Canterbury, when he laid 

* Wesley's Works, New York edition, by J. & J. Harper, 1897 ; voL 
z. p. 49. 

t VoL X. p. 47. 



186 THE apostles' fellowship. 

lUs hamU vptnwu and said, Take thou authority to preach the €tospel, 4ce.** 
In answer to the RomUh error that the ralidity of the sacramenta depends 
on the inUiUion cf the >ulminiitrater, Mr. W. says : ' It foIIowB that when- 
eyer this ig not hii intention, the sacrament is null and roii^ And so 
(according; to the Romish belief that orders are a sacrament) there Is no 
certainty whether the Priest, so called, be a real Priest, For who knows 
the intention of him that ordained him ? And if he be not, all his ministra- 
tions are of course null and void.' But, says Rome, * in case of necessity, 
Baptism may be administered by women, yea, by Jews, &c' * No,' says 
Mr. W., ' Our Lord gave this commission only to the Apostles, and their 
sueeesMora in the nuiustry. 'f In his sermon on the 'Catholic Spirit,' he 
says : ' I believe the Episcopal form of Church government to ke scripiMTal 
and Jipo8toUcal,*X 

" It havmg been objected that Mr. Wesley's licensing lay preachers 
and exhorters, was a violation of the order of the Church, by thrusting men 
into the Priesthood unordained, his answer was : * They no more take 
upon themselves to be Priests than to be Kings. They take not upon 
them to administer the sacraments, an honor peculiar to the Priests qf Ood 
Only according to their power they exhort their brethren to continue in the 
grace of 6od.'$ 

" A certain Mr. Hall, had written to Mr. W. and his brother, ' earnestly 
pressing them to renounce the Church ;' * for non-compliance with which 
advice,' says Mr. W. 'he soon renounced us.' To some <^ this gentle- 
man's arguments or reasons, the following was the reply of Mr. W. : ' You 
think, first, that we undertake to defend some things which are * net defen- 
sible by the loord of OodJ* You instance in three : on each of which we 
will explain ourselves as clearly as we can. 

" 1. ' That the validity of our Ministry depends on a suceessian supposed to 
be from the Apostles, and a commission derived from the Pope of Rome 
and his successors or dependents.* 

" We believe it would not be right for us to oinimtster, either Baptism 
or the Lord's Supper, unless we had a commission so to do from those 
Bishops, whom we apprehend to be tn a succession from the pestles. And 
yet we allow, these Bishops are the successors of those, whq aie dependent 
on the Bishop of Rome. But we would be glad to know on w)iat reasons 
you believe this to be ' inconsistent with the word of God f ' 

• Vol. vUi. p. 973. t Vol. x. p. 57. t Vol. ▼. p. 416. $ Vol. viii. p. 356. 

^ 




THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 187 

" 3. * That there is an outward pritttkoodj and consequently an vuhoard 
nerifiee^ ordained and offered by the Bishop of Rome, and his raceessor* 
or i^pendenta in the Church of England, as ▼icars and *cegerents of Christ V 

** We belicTe that there is, and always was, in «o«ry Ob^ioii Church 
(whether dependent on the Bishop of Rome or not) am otitwarri Priettkntd 
ordained by Jesus Christ, aikd an ovtward $aer\fiee offered therein, by men 
authorized to act as ambtuaadors qf CkriH and stewards qf the mysteries qf 
Oed, 

" On what grounds do you believe that Christ has abolished that Priest- 
iooduad Saeri^l 

** 3. * That this Papal Merareky and Prelacy which still continues in the 
Church of England, is of JipestoUeal imstitutionf and authorized thereby ; 
though not by the writtm word,* 

X We belicTe that the threefold order of Ministers (which yon seem to 
mean by Papal Hierarchy and Prelacy) is not only authorized by its Jtpos- 
taUeal instUutioHj but also by the written word, 

** Yet we are willing to hear and weigh whaterer reasons induce yon te 
believe the contrary."* 

" It is no marvel that one who entertained the views above expressed 
should have firmly resisted all the temptations ever offered him to with* 
draw from the Church ; while he so earnestly rebuked every tendency on 
the part of his followers to do so, that he actually proposed the extreme 
measure of prohibiting his preachers and assistants from ever ^Jre^uenting 
any dissenting meeting,* as constituting in itself a virtual withdrawal from 
the Church.t 

" His amusing but caustic letter to Mr. Asbubt, on finding that he and 
Dr. Coke, who had been appointed by him as Superintendents of the Metho- 
dist Societies in America, had transformed themselves into Bieikops of a new 
Ckurth^ has been often published, and speaks his sentiments in no equivocal 
terms. The repeated attempts made to separate the Methodists from the 
Church, as often called forth his rebuke and frown ; nor did they meet with 
more favor from the Conference. His famous ^twelve reasons against 
separation ftom the Church,* were often and extensively published by him, 
and are too well known to be recited here. Indeed, no one acquainted 
with Mr. Wesley's life and writings can be ignorant of his firm adherence 

♦ Vol. ii. pp. 74 and 75. f Vol- »• P- ^I- 



® 



I 

I 188 THE apostles' fellowship. 

I 

I to * the Charehi' as he wai wont to call it, in despite of persecutions fiom 
wtiUnj and solieitatioos ftom mtkemt. 

" But lest some should suppose that this was merely the resuH of ednea- 
tion, and confined to his earlier ministry, we may state that he solemnly 
confirmed and reiterated the same sentiments in the 87th year of his a^, a 
little more than a year before his death, in the following words. And this 
is no way contrary to the profession which T have made above these fifty 
years. Inever had any design qf aeparating from the Ckurek, I June no 
design now. I do not beliere the Methodists in general design it, when I 
am no more seen. I do, and will do, all that is in my power to prevent 
snch an event. Nevertheless, in q>ite of all that I can do, many of them 
will separate firom it ; (though I am apt to think, not one-half, perhaps not 
a third of them.) These will be so bold and injudicious, as to form a sepa- 
rate party, which consequently will dwindle away, into a dry, dull, separate 
party. In flat opposition to these, I declare once more, that I Hoe and He a 
member of the Chwrch qf England} and Aat none who regard My judgment or 
adoiee, toiU ever separaU firom tC JOHN WESLEY. 

* London, Dec. 11,1789.' 

^ Such was the final testimony of John Wesley in fovor of that Church 
whose orders be had received ; and one of the brief ejaculations he uttered 
upon his death-bed was, * Bliss thx Chubch.* 

** That Dr, Adam Oairke,otke of the bright lights of Methodism, had no 
more confidence than Wesley in any but Episcopal Ordination, is evident 
fVom his saying, in a letter to a firiend : ' Here I am, preaching the Gospel, 
wUhoiU holy orders, vithotU pretended holy orders, and without pretoHrien to 
holy orders.' His fixed opinions on the subject are doubtless given in his 
commentary upon the Bible. What were they ? ^ Epbcopacy In the Church 
of God is of Divine appointment ; and should be maintained and respected. 
Under God theie should be supreme governors In the Church, as well as in 
the State. The State has its Monarch ; the Church has its Bishop ; one 
should govern according to the laws of the land, the other according to the 
word of God.' * As the Deaean had many private members under his care, 
so the PresbyUr or EMer had several Deacons under his care, and the Bishop 
several Presbyters. Deacon, Presbyter and Bishop, existed m the JSpostoUc 
Church f and may therefore be considered of Dkrine origin,* 

" We are aware that many things may be referred to in the lives and 
writings of Mr. Wesley and his early followers, which would appear incon- 



■<^ 



THE apostles' FELLOWSHIP. 189 

graouB with the quotations above made. But we know that great and good 
men are often inconsistent with themselves ; this, however, does not impair 
the weight of their testimony, when their solemn and deliberate judgment 
has been expressed in favor of principles which are, in their own nature, 
sound and unchangeable." 

That Coke and Asbury, and the Methodists who immediately followed 
Wesley, did not regard ** Episcopal succession" as unimportant, is evident 
from the minutes of the Conferences at the time. If, as the modem Meth- 
odists say, this succession be ''preposterous,*' "a mere figment," &c.,&c., 
why were Coke and Asbury, and their coadjutors, so careful to set forth their 
claim to it, by styling themselves in their minutes— not only Bishops, but 
** Bishops by regvlar succession ?" When did they first make the discovery 
that this succession was a *^ mere fiction ?" Was it not when the evidence 
was forced upon them, that they had no title to it 1 TTuA their ovm claim to 
Episcopal attthority by sueeessionf was empty and wholly incapaHe ofdtfenu ? 




® ' '. ® 



O ALMiaHTY OOD, WHO HAST KNIT TOGETHER THINE ELECT IN 
ONE COMMUNION AND FELLOWSHIP, IN THE MYSTICAL BODY OF THY 
SON CHRIST OUR LORD ; GRANT US GRACE SO TO FOLLOW THY 
BLESSED SAINTS IN ALL VIRTUOUS AND GODLY LIVING, THAT WE MAY 
COME TO THOSE UNSPEAKABLE JOYS WHICH THOU HAST PRFPARED 
FOR THOSE WHO UNFEIGNEDLY LOVE THEE, THROUGH JESUS CHRIST 
OUR LORD. AMEN. 



J, F. Trow & Co.. Printera, 
33 Ann-street. 



®. 



« 



D. APPLETON & CO. HAVE JUST PUBLISHED, 



CATHOLIC CHURCH 



IN 



ENGLAND AND AMERICA; 



THREE LECTURES. 

1. The Church in Enoland and America Apostolic and Catholic. 

2. The Causes of the English Reformation. 

3. Its Character and Results. 

BY JOHN D. OGILBY, D. D., 

8t-Mark's-Church-Bowery Professor of Ecclesiastical History 

in the CJeneral Theological Seminary of the 

Protestant Episcopal' Church. 

" I believe One Catholic and Apostolic Church " — ^fieene Creed, 
One elegant yoltune, ICino. 76 cents. 

The Trur Catholic, (a valuable Church periodical, pub- 
lished at Baltimore,) in reviewing Professor Ogilby 's new work, 
thus observes : 

" Professor Ogilby has furnished the Church, in tliis little 
volume, with a most valuable aid. Free from all doctrinal 
syinpathy with the Geneva sects, and from any desire for the 
applause of their members, he has not encumbered himself 
with any theories to prove men within the pale of the visible 
Church who do not believe in her existence. He therefore 
presents a firm front towards Rome ; and is able to oppose a 
vigorous and effective resistance to her pretensions. The 
book is, we think, destined to become a text-book on the sub- 
ject of which it treats. What theee are, the title-page discloses, 
and what it promises the book performs. The second lecture is 
OLir favorite. We have never seen, in any thing like the same 
compass, so clear a view of the causes which gave rise to the 
power of the See of Rome. Nowhere, so far as we know, is 
there to be found so condensed and yet so lively and intelligible 
ian account of the great medisBval struggle of the Church and 
the State, which ended in Southern Europe in the triumph ot 
the first, securing for a time at least, to the benefit of the prelate 
whom the Church had called to her aid, as the Horse in the 
fable did the Man, and found a powerful ally an intolerant 
oiaster." 



\ 



i 



D. APPLETON Al CO. HAVE JUST PUBLISHED, 

NOTES ON THE EPISCOPAL POLITY 

OF THE HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

WITH SOKE AOOOVaT OF THK DETBLOnrB!«TS OP MODEBIT BELIOIOi:! •TSTXMS. ! 

BY XBDMAS WILLIAM MARSHAT.T., R A., 

or THE DIOCEIB OP SAUIBUBT. 

KDITED BY JONATHAN M. WAINWRIGHT. D. D. 
One elegantly printed volume. 12nio. Price $1 25. 

The following analysis of the Contenfi will convey a correct idea of 
the imiMjrtance of this very able voluine,^- 

Heads qf Olapitn, 

1. IlTTRODUCTIOir. 

3. S^CRIPTURE £vinE!«CB. 

3. EviDErfCE OP ArrriquiTT. 

4. AdMIVSIU^ op AoTEMARIBa. 

5. Development op Modern SrsTEMf. 

Contents :^-Chapter L Introduction. Chapter II. Scripture Evidence. 
Sec. I. Case of St. James. 2. Case of St. Timothy. 3. Case of St. Titus. 

4. Case of the Asian Angels. 5. Notice of Objections. Chapter IH. 
Evidence of Antiquity. Sec. 1. Nature of this Evidence. 2. St. 
Clement of Rome. 3. St. Ignatius of Antioch. 4. St. Justin Martyr. 

5. Pope Pius I. 6. Hegesippns. 7. Polycnites. 8. St. Irensua. 9. 
St. Clement of Alexandria. 10. TcrtuUian. 11. The Apostolical 
Canons; Arians, Donatisti, Manichojans, &c., &c. 12. St. Cyprian. 
13. St. Jerome. 14. St. Augustine. 15. St Ambrose, St. Basil, St. 
Chrysostom, St. Athanasius. 16. Summary. Chapter IV. Admissions 
of Adversaries. Sec. 1. On the General Question. 2. Calvin, J. Stnr- 
mius. 3. Beza, Farel, Rivet, N. Vedeliup, P. Viret, Zuingle. 4. Me- 
lanctlion, Luther, Confess. Augustan. 5. Bucer, Gualter, Peter Martyr, 
Jerome Zanchy, Seckendortf. 6. Dr. Peter Du Moulin. 7. H. Grotios, 
J. Casaubon. 8. Blondel. Salmasius. 9. Bochart, Am3rraut, Drelin- 
court, Langlet-DailU, Turretin, University of Geneva ; Baxter, Calamy, 
Stephen Marshall, Cartwright, Dr. Cornelius Burges, Henderson, Lord 
Pembroke, John Hales, Sir Edward Decring 10. Summary. Chapter 
V, Development of Modern Systems. Sec. 1 . Nature of this Argument' 
2. Development in Gennany. 3. Switzerland. 4. France. 5. Eng- 
land, Channellslands. 6. Scotland. 7. Ireland. 8. Holland, Betginm, 
Hungary, the Vaudois. 9. Sweden and Denmark. 10. Prussia. 11. 
Russia. 12. United States of America. 13. General Summary. 

Extract from Editor's Preface. — The present author states arguments 
and adduces authorities which have often been employed before ; but the 
manner is his own, and it is certainly a happy one. His Introduction, , 
too, places the question in a striking point of view. But the part of tlie i 
work which gives it special interest is, the fifih chapter, where an import- 
ant consideration is brought forward, and one which cannot but have great 
weight with all thoughtful observers of the times ; and this is the practical 
working of all those systems of church-government which have excluded 

the Episcopacy. 

■»■-